Eye injuries: prevention

Contents
  1. Eye Injury Prevention
  2. 5 tips for preventing eye injuries
  3. Prevention and Treatment of Common Eye Injuries in Sports
  4. Article Sections
  5. Make Eye Injury Prevention A Priority
  6. Make Eye Injury Prevention A Priority Sadly, each year about one million eye injuries occur in the United States–90 percent of which could have been prevented if protective eyewear had been worn. So, when it comes to avoiding eye injury, remember the two p’s: protection and prevention! Most Eye Injuries Occur At Home Source: https://www.trianglevisions.com/blog/make-eye-injury-prevention-a-priority/ Eye injuries: prevention NEW: Symptom Checker | Coronavirus Resources Eye Health Eye injuries: prevention Eye injuries are common, with thousands occurring each year in Australia. While some workplaces are particular risky, e.g. construction and manufacturing industries, many serious eye injuries occur in the home. Most eye injuries are preventable. Here are some suggestions to protect your eyes from injury. In general Wear protective eyewear whenever there is the slightest chance of eye injury. Always read the label carefully before using any medicine in your eyes. Read the instructions carefully before working with chemicals of any type as they may cause injury if coming in contact with your eyes. Use gloves if advised and wash your hands thoroughly after using any chemicals. In the workplace Ensure that you wear the appropriate safety eyewear recommended for your job. The safety eyewear should comply with the Australian standards. Ensure that you understand how to properly wear the eye protection provided, as many eye injuries are sustained despite appropriate protective equipment being worn. In the house Store poisonous or toxic substances in a locked cupboard, or reach of children. Take care when using household cleaners and chemicals, and make sure that you point spray nozzles away from you. Discourage children from throwing, twirling or flicking objects when playing. In the backyard Wear protective goggles when pruning or using a rotary lawnmower or edge trimmer. Keep children away when there is a danger that an object may get thrown up into their eyes, such as when you are mowing the lawn. Wear protective eyewear when using power tools, hammering metal on metal, welding, or carrying out any other activity in a home workshop where there is potential for an eye injury to occur. Don’t stand or walk close to where anyone is drilling or grinding. Be aware that fireworks pose a hazard to the eyes, particularly in the hands of children. Playing sport and enjoying the outdoors Wear safety eyewear appropriate for your sport. The highest risk sports are those involving small, high velocity projectiles – not only balls and pucks, but air rifles and playing paintball can pose a danger. Protect your eyes from the sun, including when you are in the snow. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburn of the cornea in the short term and in the long term can cause more serious damage to the eye and its surrounding structures e.g. cataracts, cancer of the conjunctiva (membrane covering the white part of the eye) and skin cancer of the eyelids. It is important to choose close-fitting, wrap-around type sunglasses and to check that they comply with Australian Standards and have an eye protection factor (EPF) of 10. Wearing a broad-brimmed hat will also reduce the amount of UV radiation that reaches the eyes. Be aware that UV radiation is more intense at high altitudes compared to sea level. Reflection from snow magnifies your exposure to UV radiation, so it is important to wear protective gear including sunglasses. References 1.Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Eye-related injuries in Australia. 2009. [Internet] Cat no INJCAT 123. Canberra: AIHW. (Accessed Dec 2012).2.Sports Medicine Australia. Eye injuries (Fact sheet).2010. [Internet]. http://sma.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/719-SMA-InjuryBrochure-Eye-Injuries_web.pdf (Accessed Dec 2012).3. Cancer Council NSW. Protecting your eyes from the sun. [Fact sheet]. http://www.cancercouncil.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/12Protecting-your-eyes-from-the-sun.pdf .4.SunSmart. Health effects of UV radiation. [Website]. Last updated May 2012. http://www.sunsmart.com.au/ultraviolet_radiation/the_health_risks/ (Accessed Dec 2012).5. Australian Safety and Compensation Council. Work-related Eye Injuries in Australia. 2008. [Internet]. http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA/about/Publications/Documents/201/WorkRealtedEyeInjuriesAustralia_2008_PDF.pdf (Accessed Dec 2012). 6. Mayo Clinic. Eye injury: Tips to protect vision. [Website] March 2011. http://www.mayoclinic. com/health/eye-injury/MY01614 (Accessed Dec 2012) Source: https://www.mydr.com.au/eye-health/eye-injuries-prevention Protect Your Eyes Against Injury Eye injuries happen every day, so protecting your eyes is one of the simplest ways to maintain healthy vision throughout your life. The good news is that 90 percent of eye injuries are preventable just by wearing appropriate protective eyewear. Learn more about eye injuries and how to prevent them with these tips. Eye Injury Facts People often think of eye injuries as happening at work, but nearly half of all eye injuries happen at home. Here are some other things you might not know about eye injuries: Sun exposure can damage eyes. Eye injuries are more common among men than women. Bystanders are also at risk when workers are using dangerous tools or chemicals. Over 2,000 people suffer from eye injuries at work each day. Over 25,000 people each year seek treatment for eye injuries related to sports. Among sports-related eye injuries, 43 percent are to children 14 or younger. An emergency room sees a patient with a sports-related eye injury every 13 minutes. Over 78 percent of people who reported eye injuries were not wearing eye protection at the time of the injury. Prevention at Work Many workplaces have eye safety regulations designed to protect workers; always carefully follow the safety regulations at your place of work. However, many work-related eye injuries occur when protective eyewear isn’t required, or workers may decide on their own whether or not to wear it. Protect your eyes while at work by following these prevention tips: Maintain a safe work environment by minimizing the risk of objects falling and making sure all tools work properly and have appropriate safety features. Identify safety hazards, including hazards from nearby workers, falling objects and large machinery. Wear proper eye protection for your workplace and make sure it fits correctly. Shake, brush or vacuum debris and dust from hard hats, forehead and hair before taking off protective eyewear. Avoid rubbing your eyes with dirty clothing or hands. Keep your eyewear clean and in good condition. Prevention at Home Common household products are involved in 125,000 eye injuries each year. Safety practices, understanding and proper eye protection can prevent 90 percent of these eye injuries, so protect yourself and your family by following these safety tips: During DIY Projects Use safety glasses with eye shields if you might be exposed to flying dust, objects or particles. Wear safety goggles around chemicals, even if you are a bystander. Supervise children using tools, including forks, knives, scissors and pencils. Common household items bungee cords, paper clips, rubber bands, wire coat hangers and fishhooks can be dangerous and should be kept the reach of children. Working in the Yard Wear protective eyewear when doing yard work, such as using a lawnmower, leaf blower or trimmers. Remove debris from your lawn before using the lawnmower. Keep children the yard and away from flying debris while mowing the lawn. Store all pool chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides and other hazardous substances the reach of children. Use chemical goggles when applying fertilizers or pesticides. Cleaning and Cooking Use chemicals and cleaners carefully according to the manufacturer’s instructions and warning labels, and never mix products. Wear chemical goggles when using hazardous chemicals. Keep cleaners, chemicals and sprays away from children. Use caution when using hot objects or cooking; avoid using a curling iron or other hot object near your eyes. Store all sharp kitchen utensils away from children, and don’t place them within your young child’s reach. Playing Avoid toys that could cause eye injury such as BB guns, pellet guns and projectile toys missile-firing toys, darts and bows and arrows. Don’t let children use laser pointers; adults should use laser pointers with caution and always avoid pointing them in people’s eyes. Keep children safe when dogs are around because eye injuries are common when small children are bitten by dogs. Prevention During Celebrations Fireworks can cause serious eye injuries, especially to children; even sparklers and other “safe” fireworks can cause serious injuries. The most common eye injuries related to fireworks were lacerations, foreign bodies and contusions. Protect your kids by not allowing them to play with fireworks, not purchasing fireworks and only attending professional displays by licensed operators. Champagne is another common part of celebrations that can cause eye injuries. Always take care when opening a bottle of champagne; point the bottle away from yourself and others, cover the bottle with a towel and slowly remove the cork. Sports Eye Injury Prevention Sports-related accidents are a common cause of eye injuries. Protect your eyes and your children’s eyes by wearing appropriate eye protection while playing sports. Wear sport-protective eyewear labeled ASTM F803 approved when playing basketball or racquet sports Batting helmets with face shields should be worn during youth baseball. Helmets and face shields that are approved by the U.S. Amateur Hockey Association should be worn during hockey. Regular glasses and sunglasses don’t provide adequate protection and can sometimes make injuries worse than not wearing any eyewear. Taking steps to prevent eye injuries is an important part of maintaining overall eye health. If you or your child does suffer from an eye injury, seek medical attention immediately. Source: https://www.slma.cc/protect-your-eyes-against-injury/ Eye injury prevention: mini review Mini Review Volume 4 Issue 5 Department of Ophthalmology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Bahamas Correspondence: Dawn S Russell-Hermanns, Head of Division of Ophthalmology Department of Surgery Princess Margaret Hospital, Suite 220 Lagoon Court P.O. Box CB-12144 Nassau, New Providence The Bahamas, Tel 242-676-2020 Received: July 29, 2016 | Published: August 18, 2016 Citation:Gomez A, Hermanns DSR. Eye injury prevention: mini review. Adv Ophthalmol Vis Syst. 2016;4(5):141-142. DOI: 10.15406/aovs.2016.04.00127 Download PDF Abstract Purpose:To provide a mini review on eye injury prevention. Methods:A systematic review of the literature. Results:Eye trauma occurs frequently in high-risk environments homes, work and at schools. Education and training are essential tools in eye injury prevention. Conclusion:Eye trauma is a major cause of preventable vision loss worldwide. It is only through regular education and prevention that the incidence of vision threatening eye trauma can be reduced. Keywords: ocular injury, eye trauma, prevention, protective eye wear WHO, world health organization; US, united states; USEIR, united states eye injury registry; CDC, centers for disease control; ANSI, american national standards institute eye protection; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; UV, ultraviolet In the United States (US), 3% of all visits to the emergency room are the result of ocular injuries.1 Ocular trauma remains a serious and preventable health care problem worldwide. It heads the list as the most important cause for unilateral blindness. 2 In a review by the World Health organization (WHO) in 1998, 55 million individuals sustained eye injuries that resulted in restricted activities for more than one day a year.3‒5 Of these eye injuries, 1.6 million resulted in complete blindness.5 This is quite significant and impactful. Age, socioeconomic status, gender and lifestyle are all identified as risk factors for eye injuries.5 A recent study looking at the rate of ocular injury in the US revealed that Caucasian males in their twenties had the highest rates of ocular trauma. 6 More than fifty percent of eye injuries occur in patients under age thirty according to the United States Eye Injury Registry (USEIR).4 The environment in which the eye injury occurs is yet another important risk factor. A significant percentage of ocular traumas occur in homes.4,7 Other studies found the work place to be an even higher risk environment for ocular injuries. 4,8,9 Prevention is essential in decreasing the rate of occurrence of ocular trauma is it in the home, work environment, during a sporting activity or any other high-risk situation or environment. This can only be achieved by education on high-risk situations and ensuring that individuals are equipped to prevent such injuries from happening.4,10 This article seeks to reinforce information on ocular trauma and prevention in various high-risk environments. We will review common high-risk situations where ocular injuries tend to occur and provide essential information on eye injury prevention. Eye injury prevention at work Trauma to the eye can occur virtually anywhere, however occupational or work-related eye injuries make up the vast majority of patients presenting to emergency rooms across the US. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that over 2,000 work related eye injuries occur daily. 11 The injury itself can result from many different causes including blunt forces, foreign bodies entering the eye, and even ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Health care workers including physicians, nurses, lab technicians, and auxiliary staff are particularly at risk for exposure to infectious diseases including the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Hepatitis B virus, which can be transmitted by direct contact via the mucous membranes of the eye.11 Preventative measures should be taken in the work place to prevent eye injuries in order to create a safe environment for employees.12 Employers and administrative staff must identify potential hazards to employees. Once identified, the correct level of eye protection should be obtained and its use enforced. Every job is unique and hence safety requirements will differ.3 Safety glasses are ideal for eye injury prevention in occupations that expose people to small particles such as dust, cement, nails, and wood pieces.10,11 Safety glasses should be customized to the individual and to the task. 10 They should include side shields to increase the protective capabilities of the safety glasses, meanwhile ensuring that there is no obstruction to peripheral vision.11 Individuals who wear glasses or contact lenses can have their safety glasses personalized to their prescription. 12,13 Safety glasses should be worn at all times by workers in high-risk environments. In certain high-risk work areas such as that of industrial workers, there should essentially be “head to toe” protection.13 The use of other protective devices such as a face shield provides an extra layer of protection. A face shield should be used in conjunction with safety glasses or goggles to provide optimal protection from particles and other objects. 11 Face shields can provide further protection from blood, chemicals and other things that can potentially cause splash injures.12 Goggles generally provide better protection in comparison to safety glasses. Goggles should be used by individuals who work in dusty environments, those at risk for chemical exposure and individuals who work with torches and welding lights.12 Workers should be adequately trained to use equipment to decrease the risk of ocular trauma. It is also essential that they are educated about the potential hazards at their specific work environment.13 Here should be regular education and training sessions. 10 Training should also encompass what to do in case there is an eye injury with emergency eyewash nearby.12 Hazard and caution signs and safety protection reminders should be placed around the workplace to further aid in prevention of injury. Restrictions to hazardous areas should also be implemented by administration, prohibiting unauthorized entry to workers who do not have on the proper safety equipment. Eye injury prevention at school Pediatric eye injuries are a major cause for ocular morbidity.14 Children at school area increased risk for eye trauma. The pencil is a common offending agent for eye injuries at school.2 Other common objects include pens, books, sticks, stones, and other things children may use or have access to at school. Teachers and parents along with legislators must play an active role in eye injury prevention in schools. Schools must educate attendees about eye injuries, which can be in the form of a lecture and or posters around the school. Young children should never be left unsupervised in the presence of potentially dangerous toys and school supplies. Parents and teachers a should inform children of the dangers of sharp objects and be taught the correct handling of such objects for e.g. holding scissors. Students should also be equipped with eye safety equipment in the presence of chemicals such as during chemistry or biology labs. Children and adolescents often participate in sports during and after school hours. Sports pose an increased risk of eye injury accounting for over 40% of eye injuries. 7 Hockey, baseball, racquetball, and basketball are the most common causes of sports related eye trauma.7 Injuries can range from blunt to penetrating trauma. Sports played outdoors also pose the risk of UV radiation related injuries to the eyes. Eye protection in sports should follow specific guidelines for testing and material standards.13 Eye injury prevention at home Many consider their home a safe haven; however the potential for eye injury is vast. Eye injuries can occur in every room of the home with approximately 33% of injuries occurring in the kitchen, bedroom, bathroom, and living or family room.7 Along with Shah et al.4 the American Academy of Ophthalmology found that a significant percentage of eye injuries occur at home.7 “Do it yourself” (DIY) projects at home are hugely popular and can set the scene for ocular trauma. Other activities such as simply mowing the lawn or gardening can lead to foreign bodies entering the eyes sand, dust, or chemicals. Safety glasses should be worn at all times when engaging in such activities. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends that each household have a pair of American National Standards Institute (ANSI) regulation eyewear. This should be worn when carrying out any potentially dangerous tasks. It has been shown that wearing protective eyewear can prevent up to 90% of eye injuries. 7 Parents and guardians must ensure a safe environment for children, adolescents, elderly patients and all occupants of the household. They must keep in mind that certain objects, which may appear benign (for example toys) can also pose a huge risk to children. Corner guards should be placed on furniture and walls with sharp edges to protect children. Children should never be left unsupervised in the home and should be made aware of the dangers associated with sharp toys and projectiles. Additionally, parents should never allow children to play with laser toys as they can cause permanent and severe ocular injury. In the kitchen while cooking, grease shields on pans can be used to prevent splashing of grease onto the face and into the eye. 7 These are all just various examples of ways we can prevent serious ocular trauma in the home. Eye trauma is a major cause of preventable vision loss worldwide. Regular education and training in schools, industrial plants and other work places inclusive of hospitals is essential to decreasing the incidence of injuries to the eyes. Frequent dissemination of information via review articles such as this, are also key to ensuring the sustained impact of education on these issues. The authors declare there are no conflicts of interest. Bord SP, Linden J. Trauma to the globe and orbit. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008;26(1):97‒123. Kelly SP, Reeves GM. Penetrating eye injuries from writing instruments. Clin Ophthalmol. 2012;6:41‒44. Patel D. Eye injuries: improving our practice. Community Eye Health. 2015;28(91):41‒43. Shah A, Blackhall K, Ker K, et al. Educational interventions for the prevention of eye injuries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;4:CD006527. Négrel AD, Thylefors B. The global impact of eye injuries. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 1998;5(3):143‒169. McGwin G, Xie A, Owsley C. Rate of eye injury in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123(7):970‒976. Pagan‒Duran B. Preventing Eye Injuries. American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2006. McCall BP, Horwitz IB, Taylor OA. Occupational eye injury and risk reduction: Kentucky workers' compensation claim analysis 1994‒2003. Inj Prev. 2009;15(3):176‒182. Mansouri MR, Hosseini M, Mohebi M, et al. Work‒related eye injury: the main cause of ocular trauma in Iran. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010;20(4):770‒775. Patel D. Preventing eye injuries. Community Eye Health. 2015;28(91):51. 2013 The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health/Eye Safety. United States Department of Labor. Occupational Safety & Health Administration, 2016. Matela D. Watch Out: The Importance of Protecting Your Eyes in the Industrial Workplace, 2008. Strahlman E, Elman M, Daub E, et al. Causes of pediatric eye injuries. A population‒based study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108(4):603‒606. Source: https://medcraveonline.com/AOVS/eye-injury-prevention-mini-review.html Preventing eye injuries E-learning Director: International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. Find articles by Daksha Patel The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach. In general, the first step in prevention is to inform people about the risks so that they can either avoid them or take action to protect their eyes. People can be informed by means of appropriate safety messages (e.g. on posters) in the areas where eyes are at risk, or through a range of media campaigns. In some environments, such as in industrial settings, messages can be supported by education/training sessions. ‘In some high-risk environments, information and education is not enough’ Prevention messages and education certainly increase people's knowledge about avoiding and protecting themselves against risks, but there is insufficient evidence that these, by themselves, will result in changed behaviour in the long term. A recent Cochrane review2 indicates that the overall impact of education is short-lived and that it often needs to be reinforced or supported in practical ways. For example, in high-risk environments (e.g. agricultural and industrial settings) where people are advised to wear protective eyewear (safety glasses), it might be necessary to also provide the correct eyewear. This will improve compliance. When considering the use of protective eyewear, it is important to pay attention to the practicalities: is the eyewear comfortable to use, and is it suited to the task at hand? Eye protection has to be suitable in its visual properties (i.e. can people see well enough?), size and weight and must have the appropriate strength of material for the protection required. The influence of legislation on risk reduction has been well documented. In the UK, studies have demonstrated a reduction of up to 73% in motor vehicle-related eye injuries after the introduction of compulsory seat belt use.1 Injuries in the home lack a specific pattern of aetiology and are therefore the most challenging to prevent. Creating general awareness about the safe use of domestic chemicals, kitchen equipment or gardening tools is therefore essential. Safety standards for toys, tools and home equipment might also be needed in some countries. Suggestions for the prevention of eye injuries at individual and community level Prevention at individual levelPrevention at community/public health level Home Keep sharp objects/chemicals away from children and look for safety standards in household products Raise safety awareness on the use of tools and kitchenware around the house Industry Emphasise the use of helmets and eye protection Raise awareness and advise industries on safer modifications of the work environment. May require introduction of safety legislation Agricultural Encourage the use of eye protection, particularly at harvest time Audit injuries and their seasonality so that appropriate advice/education can be provided e.g. to fruit pickers or during grain harvests Sport Encourage the use of eye protection and/or helmets, e.g. for contact sports and racquet sports Consider advocating for legislation to encourage compliance with protective eyewear use Conflict Give advice on the importance of using helmets and protective eyewear Lobby government to provide protective gear and appropriate training for soldiers Assault Difficult to advice specific action at individual level Encourage and support multidisciplinary action to reduce violence at a community level Transport Encourage motorists to wear seatbelts and cyclists and motorcycle users to wear eye protection Advocate for legislation to support compliance Fireworks Promote keeping a safe distance during firework use, especially for children Organise prevention messages in media during periods of festivity Contact lenses Give advice on contact lens wearing habits and discourage overnight use Raise awareness among eye workers on lens types and correct wearing habits for contact lens users Despite the challenges, prevention is essential. Table 1 gives suggestions for the prevention of the most common eye injuries, both at an individual and at a community/public health level. Overleaf there is a case study on prevention in the agricultural environment and one looking at evidence on eye injury prevention in a work setting. In our online edition, there is also a case study looking at the prevention of road traffic accidents in Kenya by ensuring that commercial drivers have good visual health and good visual acuity (www.cehjournal. org/article/vision-testing-to-prevent-road-traffic-accidents-in-kenya/). This will in turn help to prevent eye injuries. A next step would be the introduction of seat belt wearing – backed up by legislation – to prevent an accident from causing blinding injuries. 1. Hall NF, Denning AM, Elkington AR. et al. The eye and the seatbelt in Wessex.Br J Ophthalmol69:317, 1985 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 2. Shah A, Blackhall K, Ker K, Patel D.Educational interventions for the prevention of eye injuries.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2009, Issue 4. Art. No. CD006527. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. CD006527.pub3.CD006527.pub3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] Articles from Community Eye Health are provided here courtesy of International Centre for Eye Health Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4790163/
  7. Most Eye Injuries Occur At Home
  8. Eye injuries: prevention
  9. In general
  10. In the workplace
  11. In the house
  12. In the backyard
  13. Playing sport and enjoying the outdoors
  14. References
  15. Protect Your Eyes Against Injury
  16. Eye injury prevention: mini review
  17. Abstract
  18. Preventing eye injuries

Eye Injury Prevention

Eye injuries: prevention

There’s No Place Home, Especially for Eye Injuries

Home may be where the heart is, but it can also be a dangerous place for the eyes. More than half of the 2.5 million eye injuries that occur every year happen within or around the home.

According to results from the “Annual Eye Injury Snapshot” by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) and the American Society of Ocular Trauma (ASOT), accidental eye injury is one of the leading causes of visual impairment in the United States, yet only 35 percent of Americans wear protective eyewear when doing projects that could threaten their vision.

Injuries can occur from a variety of sources including power tools, yard debris, cleaning fluids and chemicals. The research found that the most common place of injury was the yard or garden. In addition, one in four eye injuries that occurred in the home were due to home repair or use of power tools.

“Eye injuries in the home include everything from painful corneal abrasions, chemical splashes or punctures to the eye that can cause permanent vision loss,” says Dr. Marcy Hanudel with The Eye Clinic.

“It’s easy to become complacent when doing everyday chores in the yard, home or garage. We realize that most people don’t even stop to think about eye protection for these routine tasks, but it’s important to be aware of the risk and protect your eyes.

It’s estimated that 90 percent of eye injuries occurring in the home could be prevented by wearing appropriate protective eyewear. If you do get chemicals in the eye, irrigate immediately with the nearest source of clean water or balanced solution. Ex.

Saline, artificial tears, etc. An eye injury can occur in a split second but have a lifelong impact on your vision.”

October has been designated “Home Eye Safety Awareness Month” by Prevent Blindness America in an effort to increase awareness of eye injury risk in the home, and to provide education about prevention.

The Eye Clinic offers these eye-safety tips:

  • Wear eye protection when doing automotive work.
  • Never mix cleaning agents.  Read and follow all manufacturer instructions and warning labels and always use these products in well ventilated areas.
  • Wear safety glasses with side protection or dust goggles when doing yard work to protect against flying particles, and chemical goggles to guard against exposure to fertilizers and pesticides.
  • If you wear prescription glasses, many safety glasses or goggles will fit over your regular glasses.  Regular eyeglasses do not always provide enough protection, and may even cause further injury upon impact.
  • Inspect and remove debris from lawns before mowing.  Make sure others in the yard are wearing eye protection as bystanders can be hit by flying debris.
  • Keep tools in good condition; damaged tools should be repaired or replaced.
  • After any project, make sure hands are washed thoroughly before touching the eyes or face.
  • Seek medical care immediately for any eye injury.

For more information about protective eyewear, call Optics Unlimited at any location of The Eye Clinic or visit www.theeyeclinic.net.

Source: https://www.theeyeclinic.net/2018/10/03/eye-injury-prevention/

5 tips for preventing eye injuries

Eye injuries: prevention

With the Fourth of July approaching and outdoor activities ly taking up much of your summer fun, it’s time to consider the importance of protecting your eyes. Eye injuries are largely preventable, but you need to be aware of risks and measures you can take to keep your eyes safe.

Five tips to help prevent eye injuries:

Leave fireworks to the pros

Unfortunately, I’ve seen many severe eye injuries from fireworks. And most of these injuries resulted in permanent damage or blindness. In fact, a lot of people even lose their eye or eyes from a fireworks accident.

The best method of eye injury prevention from fireworks is to leave these exploding wonders to the professionals. July 4 weekend offers many chances to see a well-orchestrated fireworks show from a safe distance. Take advantage of these opportunities rather than trying to conduct your own show.

If your family must have fireworks for the holidays, stick to sparklers, wear eye protection and make sure an adult supervises all activity.

Wear eye protection when at risk

Safety glasses go beyond handling fireworks. Whether you’re working a construction job, making home improvements or mowing the lawn, always don proper eye protection. Debris can easily get into your eyes and cause problems ranging from irritation to serious damage.

Additionally, put on protective eyewear when you’re playing certain sports — for example, racquetball and paintball. Always keep the eyewear on until the game is completely finished. Pulling glasses or goggles off early puts you at major risk for injury.

You should wear eye protection if you’re using bungee cords, which can also be very dangerous. Rope or straps are safer options for tethering items.

Use caution with chemicals and cleaners

Read the labels of cleaning supplies and other chemicals very carefully before using them. Don't mix products, and keep chemicals and sprays the reach of children.

Be careful when cooking or using hot objects

Use grease shields to prevent the splattering of hot grease or oil. Keep a safe distance from open flames. Avoid using a curling iron near your eyes.

Don’t let curiosity get the best of you

Never look directly at a firework, bottle cork, or other explosive or projectile device if it doesn’t go off as expected. Dispose of the object in question in a safe place rather than inspecting it closely or studying it with your face in harm’s way. These objects tend to discharge unexpectedly after a delay. Eyes are often damaged in the process.

Vision is an important function, and you don’t want to compromise your long-term eye health simply because it’s inconvenient to follow best practices. Remember to stay aware of your surroundings and risks, wear eye protection, and leave fireworks to qualified professionals. Doing so will help you have a safer, more enjoyable Fourth of July, summer and life.

Anna Kitzmann, M.D., is a Mayo Clinic Health System in Fairmont ophthalmologist.

Source: https://www.mayoclinichealthsystem.org/hometown-health/speaking-of-health/5-tips-for-preventing-eye-injuries

Prevention and Treatment of Common Eye Injuries in Sports

Eye injuries: prevention

JORGE O. RODRIGUEZ, D.O., East Carolina University/Brody School of Medicine, Greenville, North Carolina

ADRIAN M. LAVINA, M.D., and ANITA AGARWAL, M.D., Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee

Am Fam Physician. 2003 Apr 1;67(7):1481-1488.

  Patient Information Handout

Article Sections

Sports have become increasingly popular and account for numerous eye injuries each year. The sports that most commonly cause eye injuries, in order of decreasing frequency, are basketball, water sports, baseball, and racquet sports. Sports are classified as low risk, high risk, and very high risk. Sports-related eye injuries are blunt, penetrating, and radiation injuries.

The use of eye protection has helped to reduce the number and severity of eye injuries. The American Society for Testing and Materials has established performance standards for selected eyewear. Consultation with an eye care professional is recommended for fitting protective eyewear. The functionally one-eyed, or monocular, athlete should take extra precautions.

A preparticipation eye examination is helpful in identifying persons who may be at increased risk for eye injury. Sports-related eye injuries should be evaluated on site with an adequate examination of the eye and adnexa. Minor eye injuries may be treated on site.

The team physician must know which injuries require immediate referral to an ophthalmologist and the guidelines for returning an athlete to competition.

Sports and recreational activities are becoming increasingly popular and account for more than 40,000 eye injuries each year in the United States. About 90 percent of sports-related ocular injuries are considered preventable.1–5 Athletes should be educated by team physicians about proper eye and facial protection and encouraged to use protective devices.

Thirty percent of ocular injuries among children younger than 16 years are sports related. Basketball, water sports, baseball, and racquet sports account for most injuries.1 Among young persons five to 14 years of age, baseball is most frequently associated with ocular injury, while among persons 15 to 64 years of age, basketball is the leading cause of eye injuries.1,2,6–10

The American Medical Association classifies sports as collision (football, rugby, hockey, lacrosse), contact (baseball, soccer, basketball, wrestling), noncontact (cross-country running, track, tennis, crew, swimming), and other (bowling, golf, archery, field events).

These classifications may be misleading because golf and racquet sports, for instance, have a great potential for eye injury but may not be considered hazardous for the monocular athlete if these classifications are followed.

Conversely, these classifications may be overly restrictive with regard to contact sports such as hockey, for which adequate eye protection is available.7

When considering the potential for eye injury, it may be more appropriate to categorize sports as low risk, high risk, and very high risk. Low risk indicates no use of a ball, puck, bat, stick, or racquet, and no body contact. Examples include track/field, swimming, gymnastics, and cycling.

High-risk sports involve the use of a ball, puck, bat, stick, or racquet, and/or body contact. Examples of high-risk sports include baseball, hockey, football, basketball, lacrosse, racquet sports, tennis, fencing, golf, and water polo.

Very-high-risk sports, such as boxing, wrestling, and contact martial arts, are those in which eye protectors typically are not worn.2,10

A complete eye examination should be part of any sports physical. With each athlete, physicians should obtain an ocular history, paying special attention to prior conditions such as a high degree of myopia, surgical aphakia, retinal detachment, eye surgery, and injury or infection.

Athletes with any of these conditions may be at increased risk for serious eye injury.2,11,12 It also is important to assess athletes who have a strong family history of retinal detachment, retinal tears, and diabetic retinopathy.

12 Athletes with such risk factors should be evaluated by an eye care professional before engaging in any high-risk or very-high-risk sport.13

The most common mechanisms of eye trauma involve blunt, penetrating, and radiation injuries. Blunt trauma accounts for most sports-related eye injuries.

5,14 The extent of ocular damage depends on the size, hardness, and velocity of the blunt object, and the force imparted directly to the eye.

A direct blow to the globe from a blunt object smaller than the eye's orbital opening causes rapid anteroposterior compression and dilation of the middle of the globe, transmitting a great force to the internal ocular structures.

A blunt object larger than the orbital opening exerts force on the floor of the orbit or the medial wall, resulting in fractures of the thin bones. This “pressure-release valve” may prevent rupture of the globe. However, there is a high incidence of occult internal ocular injuries1,7 (Figure 1).

Examples of blunt injuries include orbital blowout fracture, orbital and lid contusions, iris injury, ruptured globe (Figure 2), traumatic iritis, subconjunctival hemorrhage (Figure 3), hyphema—blood in the anterior chamber—(Figure 4), retinal hemorrhage, commotio retinae (Figure 5), vitreous hemorrhage, choroidal rupture (Figure 6), retinal tears, and retinal detachment.3,7,8,12,15–18

Penetrating injuries are relatively uncommon but may occur even with large projectiles. Eyeglass breakage also can cause penetrating injury.1 Such injuries range from mild abrasions to serious lacerations.

Canalicular lacerations usually occur because of trauma from a fellow player's finger in the area of the medial canthus.8 Fishing hooks have been known to cause penetrating globe injuries (Figure 7).

Radiation injuries occur as a result of exposure to ultraviolet light in snow skiing, water skiing, and other water sports.5,14

Sports-related ocular injuries can be evaluated on site with the appropriate medical supplies (Table 1).1 First, an adequate history should be obtained to determine the force and direction of the impact.

For example, the physician should find out whether the injury was from a line drive, a fly ball, a pitched ball, or a hockey “slap shot.”10 Best-corrected visual acuity is checked using an eye chart. Confrontation visual fields should be checked.

Visual field defects suggest a retinal, optic nerve, or central nervous system injury.

TABLE 1
First Aid Equipment for Evaluating and Treating Eye Injuries on Site

The rightsholder did not grant rights to reproduce this item in electronic media. For the missing item, see the original print version of this publication.

Next, the pupils should be examined with a bright light source. The physician should check for anisocoria (unequal pupil size) and for a relative afferent pupillary defect. Normally, the pupils constrict promptly and equally during accommodation and exposure to direct light and to light directed at the other pupil (i.e.

, consensual light reflex). If light reflex is diminished in one eye, a swinging flashlight test may discriminate between an afferent (retina or optic nerve) lesion and an efferent (third nerve or pupillary muscle) lesion.

A deafferented pupil constricts consensually, but not to direct light, paradoxically enlarging when the light is quickly brought from the unaffected side (Marcus Gunn pupil). An efferent lesion prevents direct and consensual constriction while the unaffected eye maintains both. Pupil irregularity is almost always pathologic.

A penlight examination of the anterior chamber should be performed to check for foreign bodies, hyphema, abrasions (Figure 8), and lacerations.

Both eyes should have full motility in all positions of gaze. Elevation of gaze may be limited by an orbital floor fracture. Double vision in any gaze position suggests significant injury in one or both eyes.1

External examination is then performed. Signs of orbital injury include periorbital ecchymosis, edema, proptosis, and bony step-offs of the orbital rim. Trismus, or pain when opening the mouth, often occurs with fractures of the lateral wall of the orbit. Paresthesia in the V2 (infraorbital) distribution of the trigeminal nerve suggests a fracture of the orbital floor (Figure 9).

Finally, funduscopic examination is done to evaluate the red reflex. Even modest bleeding into the ocular media can alter or obscure the red reflex. This may be the only sign of occult rupture of the globe. Any alteration of the red reflex requires immediate ophthalmologic referral.13,19  Signs and symptoms that warrant immediate referral are outlined in Table 2.1,3,10,19

When eye trauma occurs, the possibility of a globe rupture must be considered. Perforation and rupture are indicated by darkly pigmented uveal tissue presenting through a laceration.1,19  A tear-drop–shaped pupil may indicate iris prolapse through a wound at the limbus.

Subtle signs of globe rupture include subconjunctival hemorrhage, a deep or shallow anterior chamber, or a conjunctival laceration. If globe rupture is suspected, no further manipulation of the eye should take place.

After a protective shield is placed over the eye, the patient should be given nothing by mouth and should be referred immediately for ophthalmic evaluation. Table 31,3,10,13,19 outlines treatment of selected eye injuries.

Eye protection has reduced the number and severity of eye injuries. A protective device should dissipate a potentially harmful force over a larger area. Eye protectors need to shift impact from the eyes and face to the skull without causing intracranial injury.

It may be necessary to integrate helmets with eye and face protectors. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has established performance standards for selected eyewear in racquet sports, baseball, basketball, women's lacrosse, field hockey, and alpine skiing.

ASTM F803–01 standards establish performance requirements for eye-wear that are most appropriate in sports with a risk of ocular injury.

9 According to these performance standards, force transfer devices must be acceptable to the athlete, not change the appeal of the game, and not generate unacceptable liability.1,11,13

Protective eyewear often is made of polycarbonate, a highly impact-resistant plastic capable of absorbing ultraviolet light. Because this plastic is eight times stronger than other materials, it is preferred for use in protective glasses.

Polycarbonate lenses are available in prescription and nonprescription lenses. Contact lenses offer no eye protection, and eyeglasses provide inadequate protection. Regular eyeglasses have only 4 to 5 percent of the impact resistance of polycarbonate of comparable thickness.

1–3,11,20  Guidelines for protective eyewear are listed in Table 4.2,3

An athlete is considered monocular when the best corrected visual acuity in the weaker eye is less than 20/40.

Such athletes must wear sports eye protectors that meet ASTM racquet sports standards in all sports that carry risks of eye injury, for all games and practices. An eye protector must be worn beneath a face mask in sports that require facial protection (i.e.

, hockey, football, and lacrosse). The athlete should be instructed to wear protective lenses at all times in case of non–sports-related trauma.2,3,7,11,20,21

Monocular athletes should wear polycarbonate lenses and frames while playing basketball. In hockey, a helmet with a full-face cage, made of either wire or polycarbonate, and sports goggles are needed.

While playing football, the monocular athlete should wear a helmet with a face mask, a polycarbonate shield, and sports goggles. Monocular baseball players should wear sports goggles at all times.

While batting or running bases, the appropriate helmet with a polycarbonate face guard and sports goggles should be worn. Boxing, wrestling, and full-contact martial arts are contraindicated in monocular athletes because no adequate eye protection is available.

2,11,21 The functionally monocular athlete should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist before being admitted to participation in a particular sport.13

Source: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0401/p1481.html

Make Eye Injury Prevention A Priority

Eye injuries: prevention

Make Eye Injury Prevention A Priority

Sadly, each year about one million eye injuries occur in the United States–90 percent of which could have been prevented if protective eyewear had been worn. So, when it comes to avoiding eye injury, remember the two p’s: protection and prevention!

Most Eye Injuries Occur At Home

Source: https://www.trianglevisions.com/blog/make-eye-injury-prevention-a-priority/

Eye injuries: prevention

Eye injuries: prevention
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Eye Health Eye injuries: prevention

Eye injuries are common, with thousands occurring each year in Australia. While some workplaces are particular risky, e.g. construction and manufacturing industries, many serious eye injuries occur in the home. Most eye injuries are preventable. Here are some suggestions to protect your eyes from injury.

In general

  • Wear protective eyewear whenever there is the slightest chance of eye injury.
  • Always read the label carefully before using any medicine in your eyes.
  • Read the instructions carefully before working with chemicals of any type as they may cause injury if coming in contact with your eyes. Use gloves if advised and wash your hands thoroughly after using any chemicals.

In the workplace

  • Ensure that you wear the appropriate safety eyewear recommended for your job. The safety eyewear should comply with the Australian standards.
  • Ensure that you understand how to properly wear the eye protection provided, as many eye injuries are sustained despite appropriate protective equipment being worn.

In the house

  • Store poisonous or toxic substances in a locked cupboard, or reach of children.
  • Take care when using household cleaners and chemicals, and make sure that you point spray nozzles away from you.
  • Discourage children from throwing, twirling or flicking objects when playing.

In the backyard

  • Wear protective goggles when pruning or using a rotary lawnmower or edge trimmer.
  • Keep children away when there is a danger that an object may get thrown up into their eyes, such as when you are mowing the lawn.
  • Wear protective eyewear when using power tools, hammering metal on metal, welding, or carrying out any other activity in a home workshop where there is potential for an eye injury to occur.
  • Don’t stand or walk close to where anyone is drilling or grinding.
  • Be aware that fireworks pose a hazard to the eyes, particularly in the hands of children.

Playing sport and enjoying the outdoors

  • Wear safety eyewear appropriate for your sport.
  • The highest risk sports are those involving small, high velocity projectiles – not only balls and pucks, but air rifles and playing paintball can pose a danger.
  • Protect your eyes from the sun, including when you are in the snow.
  • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburn of the cornea in the short term and in the long term can cause more serious damage to the eye and its surrounding structures e.g. cataracts, cancer of the conjunctiva (membrane covering the white part of the eye) and skin cancer of the eyelids.
  • It is important to choose close-fitting, wrap-around type sunglasses and to check that they comply with Australian Standards and have an eye protection factor (EPF) of 10.
  • Wearing a broad-brimmed hat will also reduce the amount of UV radiation that reaches the eyes.
  • Be aware that UV radiation is more intense at high altitudes compared to sea level. Reflection from snow magnifies your exposure to UV radiation, so it is important to wear protective gear including sunglasses.

References

1.Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Eye-related injuries in Australia. 2009. [Internet] Cat no INJCAT 123. Canberra: AIHW. (Accessed Dec 2012).2.Sports Medicine Australia. Eye injuries (Fact sheet).2010. [Internet]. http://sma.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/719-SMA-InjuryBrochure-Eye-Injuries_web.pdf (Accessed Dec 2012).3.

Cancer Council NSW. Protecting your eyes from the sun. [Fact sheet]. http://www.cancercouncil.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/12Protecting-your-eyes-from-the-sun.pdf .4.SunSmart. Health effects of UV radiation. [Website]. Last updated May 2012. http://www.sunsmart.com.au/ultraviolet_radiation/the_health_risks/ (Accessed Dec 2012).5.

Australian Safety and Compensation Council. Work-related Eye Injuries in Australia. 2008. [Internet]. http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA/about/Publications/Documents/201/WorkRealtedEyeInjuriesAustralia_2008_PDF.pdf (Accessed Dec 2012).

6. Mayo Clinic. Eye injury: Tips to protect vision. [Website] March 2011. http://www.mayoclinic.

com/health/eye-injury/MY01614 (Accessed Dec 2012)

Source: https://www.mydr.com.au/eye-health/eye-injuries-prevention

Protect Your Eyes Against Injury

Eye injuries: prevention

Eye injuries happen every day, so protecting your eyes is one of the simplest ways to maintain healthy vision throughout your life. The good news is that 90 percent of eye injuries are preventable just by wearing appropriate protective eyewear. Learn more about eye injuries and how to prevent them with these tips.

Eye Injury Facts

People often think of eye injuries as happening at work, but nearly half of all eye injuries happen at home. Here are some other things you might not know about eye injuries:

  • Sun exposure can damage eyes.
  • Eye injuries are more common among men than women.
  • Bystanders are also at risk when workers are using dangerous tools or chemicals.
  • Over 2,000 people suffer from eye injuries at work each day.
  • Over 25,000 people each year seek treatment for eye injuries related to sports.
  • Among sports-related eye injuries, 43 percent are to children 14 or younger.
  • An emergency room sees a patient with a sports-related eye injury every 13 minutes.
  • Over 78 percent of people who reported eye injuries were not wearing eye protection at the time of the injury.

Prevention at Work

Many workplaces have eye safety regulations designed to protect workers; always carefully follow the safety regulations at your place of work. However, many work-related eye injuries occur when protective eyewear isn’t required, or workers may decide on their own whether or not to wear it. Protect your eyes while at work by following these prevention tips:

  • Maintain a safe work environment by minimizing the risk of objects falling and making sure all tools work properly and have appropriate safety features.
  • Identify safety hazards, including hazards from nearby workers, falling objects and large machinery.
  • Wear proper eye protection for your workplace and make sure it fits correctly.
  • Shake, brush or vacuum debris and dust from hard hats, forehead and hair before taking off protective eyewear.
  • Avoid rubbing your eyes with dirty clothing or hands.
  • Keep your eyewear clean and in good condition.

Prevention at Home

Common household products are involved in 125,000 eye injuries each year. Safety practices, understanding and proper eye protection can prevent 90 percent of these eye injuries, so protect yourself and your family by following these safety tips:

During DIY Projects

  • Use safety glasses with eye shields if you might be exposed to flying dust, objects or particles.
  • Wear safety goggles around chemicals, even if you are a bystander.
  • Supervise children using tools, including forks, knives, scissors and pencils.
  • Common household items bungee cords, paper clips, rubber bands, wire coat hangers and fishhooks can be dangerous and should be kept the reach of children.

Working in the Yard

  • Wear protective eyewear when doing yard work, such as using a lawnmower, leaf blower or trimmers.
  • Remove debris from your lawn before using the lawnmower.
  • Keep children the yard and away from flying debris while mowing the lawn.
  • Store all pool chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides and other hazardous substances the reach of children.
  • Use chemical goggles when applying fertilizers or pesticides.

Cleaning and Cooking

  • Use chemicals and cleaners carefully according to the manufacturer’s instructions and warning labels, and never mix products.
  • Wear chemical goggles when using hazardous chemicals.
  • Keep cleaners, chemicals and sprays away from children.
  • Use caution when using hot objects or cooking; avoid using a curling iron or other hot object near your eyes.
  • Store all sharp kitchen utensils away from children, and don’t place them within your young child’s reach.

Playing

  • Avoid toys that could cause eye injury such as BB guns, pellet guns and projectile toys missile-firing toys, darts and bows and arrows.
  • Don’t let children use laser pointers; adults should use laser pointers with caution and always avoid pointing them in people’s eyes.
  • Keep children safe when dogs are around because eye injuries are common when small children are bitten by dogs.

Prevention During Celebrations

Fireworks can cause serious eye injuries, especially to children; even sparklers and other “safe” fireworks can cause serious injuries. The most common eye injuries related to fireworks were lacerations, foreign bodies and contusions. Protect your kids by not allowing them to play with fireworks, not purchasing fireworks and only attending professional displays by licensed operators.

Champagne is another common part of celebrations that can cause eye injuries. Always take care when opening a bottle of champagne; point the bottle away from yourself and others, cover the bottle with a towel and slowly remove the cork.

Sports Eye Injury Prevention

Sports-related accidents are a common cause of eye injuries. Protect your eyes and your children’s eyes by wearing appropriate eye protection while playing sports.

  • Wear sport-protective eyewear labeled ASTM F803 approved when playing basketball or racquet sports
  • Batting helmets with face shields should be worn during youth baseball.
  • Helmets and face shields that are approved by the U.S. Amateur Hockey Association should be worn during hockey.
  • Regular glasses and sunglasses don’t provide adequate protection and can sometimes make injuries worse than not wearing any eyewear.

Taking steps to prevent eye injuries is an important part of maintaining overall eye health. If you or your child does suffer from an eye injury, seek medical attention immediately.

Source: https://www.slma.cc/protect-your-eyes-against-injury/

Eye injury prevention: mini review

Eye injuries: prevention

Mini Review Volume 4 Issue 5

Department of Ophthalmology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Bahamas

Correspondence: Dawn S Russell-Hermanns, Head of Division of Ophthalmology Department of Surgery Princess Margaret Hospital, Suite 220 Lagoon Court P.O. Box CB-12144 Nassau, New Providence The Bahamas, Tel 242-676-2020

Received: July 29, 2016 | Published: August 18, 2016

Citation: Gomez A, Hermanns DSR. Eye injury prevention: mini review. Adv Ophthalmol Vis Syst. 2016;4(5):141-142. DOI: 10.15406/aovs.2016.04.00127

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Abstract

Purpose: To provide a mini review on eye injury prevention.
Methods: A systematic review of the literature.
Results: Eye trauma occurs frequently in high-risk environments homes, work and at schools.

Education and training are essential tools in eye injury prevention.
Conclusion: Eye trauma is a major cause of preventable vision loss worldwide.

It is only through regular education and prevention that the incidence of vision threatening eye trauma can be reduced.

Keywords: ocular injury, eye trauma, prevention, protective eye wear

WHO, world health organization; US, united states; USEIR, united states eye injury registry; CDC, centers for disease control; ANSI, american national standards institute eye protection; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; UV, ultraviolet

In the United States (US), 3% of all visits to the emergency room are the result of ocular injuries.1 Ocular trauma remains a serious and preventable health care problem worldwide. It heads the list as the most important cause for unilateral blindness.

2 In a review by the World Health organization (WHO) in 1998, 55 million individuals sustained eye injuries that resulted in restricted activities for more than one day a year.3‒5 Of these eye injuries, 1.6 million resulted in complete blindness.5 This is quite significant and impactful.

Age, socioeconomic status, gender and lifestyle are all identified as risk factors for eye injuries.5 A recent study looking at the rate of ocular injury in the US revealed that Caucasian males in their twenties had the highest rates of ocular trauma.

6 More than fifty percent of eye injuries occur in patients under age thirty according to the United States Eye Injury Registry (USEIR).4

The environment in which the eye injury occurs is yet another important risk factor. A significant percentage of ocular traumas occur in homes.4,7 Other studies found the work place to be an even higher risk environment for ocular injuries.

4,8,9 Prevention is essential in decreasing the rate of occurrence of ocular trauma is it in the home, work environment, during a sporting activity or any other high-risk situation or environment.

This can only be achieved by education on high-risk situations and ensuring that individuals are equipped to prevent such injuries from happening.4,10 This article seeks to reinforce information on ocular trauma and prevention in various high-risk environments.

We will review common high-risk situations where ocular injuries tend to occur and provide essential information on eye injury prevention.

Eye injury prevention at work

Trauma to the eye can occur virtually anywhere, however occupational or work-related eye injuries make up the vast majority of patients presenting to emergency rooms across the US. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that over 2,000 work related eye injuries occur daily.

11 The injury itself can result from many different causes including blunt forces, foreign bodies entering the eye, and even ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Health care workers including physicians, nurses, lab technicians, and auxiliary staff are particularly at risk for exposure to infectious diseases including the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Hepatitis B virus, which can be transmitted by direct contact via the mucous membranes of the eye.11

Preventative measures should be taken in the work place to prevent eye injuries in order to create a safe environment for employees.12 Employers and administrative staff must identify potential hazards to employees. Once identified, the correct level of eye protection should be obtained and its use enforced.

Every job is unique and hence safety requirements will differ.3 Safety glasses are ideal for eye injury prevention in occupations that expose people to small particles such as dust, cement, nails, and wood pieces.10,11 Safety glasses should be customized to the individual and to the task.

10 They should include side shields to increase the protective capabilities of the safety glasses, meanwhile ensuring that there is no obstruction to peripheral vision.11 Individuals who wear glasses or contact lenses can have their safety glasses personalized to their prescription.

12,13 Safety glasses should be worn at all times by workers in high-risk environments.

In certain high-risk work areas such as that of industrial workers, there should essentially be “head to toe” protection.13 The use of other protective devices such as a face shield provides an extra layer of protection. A face shield should be used in conjunction with safety glasses or goggles to provide optimal protection from particles and other objects.

11 Face shields can provide further protection from blood, chemicals and other things that can potentially cause splash injures.12 Goggles generally provide better protection in comparison to safety glasses.

Goggles should be used by individuals who work in dusty environments, those at risk for chemical exposure and individuals who work with torches and welding lights.12

Workers should be adequately trained to use equipment to decrease the risk of ocular trauma. It is also essential that they are educated about the potential hazards at their specific work environment.13 Here should be regular education and training sessions.

10 Training should also encompass what to do in case there is an eye injury with emergency eyewash nearby.12 Hazard and caution signs and safety protection reminders should be placed around the workplace to further aid in prevention of injury.

Restrictions to hazardous areas should also be implemented by administration, prohibiting unauthorized entry to workers who do not have on the proper safety equipment.

Eye injury prevention at school

Pediatric eye injuries are a major cause for ocular morbidity.14 Children at school area increased risk for eye trauma. The pencil is a common offending agent for eye injuries at school.2 Other common objects include pens, books, sticks, stones, and other things children may use or have access to at school.

Teachers and parents along with legislators must play an active role in eye injury prevention in schools. Schools must educate attendees about eye injuries, which can be in the form of a lecture and or posters around the school.

Young children should never be left unsupervised in the presence of potentially dangerous toys and school supplies. Parents and teachers a should inform children of the dangers of sharp objects and be taught the correct handling of such objects for e.g. holding scissors.

Students should also be equipped with eye safety equipment in the presence of chemicals such as during chemistry or biology labs.

Children and adolescents often participate in sports during and after school hours. Sports pose an increased risk of eye injury accounting for over 40% of eye injuries.

7 Hockey, baseball, racquetball, and basketball are the most common causes of sports related eye trauma.7 Injuries can range from blunt to penetrating trauma. Sports played outdoors also pose the risk of UV radiation related injuries to the eyes.

Eye protection in sports should follow specific guidelines for testing and material standards.13

Eye injury prevention at home

Many consider their home a safe haven; however the potential for eye injury is vast. Eye injuries can occur in every room of the home with approximately 33% of injuries occurring in the kitchen, bedroom, bathroom, and living or family room.7 Along with Shah et al.4 the American Academy of Ophthalmology found that a significant percentage of eye injuries occur at home.7

“Do it yourself” (DIY) projects at home are hugely popular and can set the scene for ocular trauma. Other activities such as simply mowing the lawn or gardening can lead to foreign bodies entering the eyes sand, dust, or chemicals. Safety glasses should be worn at all times when engaging in such activities.

The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends that each household have a pair of American National Standards Institute (ANSI) regulation eyewear. This should be worn when carrying out any potentially dangerous tasks. It has been shown that wearing protective eyewear can prevent up to 90% of eye injuries.

7

Parents and guardians must ensure a safe environment for children, adolescents, elderly patients and all occupants of the household. They must keep in mind that certain objects, which may appear benign (for example toys) can also pose a huge risk to children.

Corner guards should be placed on furniture and walls with sharp edges to protect children. Children should never be left unsupervised in the home and should be made aware of the dangers associated with sharp toys and projectiles.

Additionally, parents should never allow children to play with laser toys as they can cause permanent and severe ocular injury. In the kitchen while cooking, grease shields on pans can be used to prevent splashing of grease onto the face and into the eye.

7 These are all just various examples of ways we can prevent serious ocular trauma in the home.

Eye trauma is a major cause of preventable vision loss worldwide. Regular education and training in schools, industrial plants and other work places inclusive of hospitals is essential to decreasing the incidence of injuries to the eyes. Frequent dissemination of information via review articles such as this, are also key to ensuring the sustained impact of education on these issues.

The authors declare there are no conflicts of interest.

  1. Bord SP, Linden J. Trauma to the globe and orbit. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008;26(1):97‒123.
  2. Kelly SP, Reeves GM. Penetrating eye injuries from writing instruments. Clin Ophthalmol. 2012;6:41‒44.
  3. Patel D. Eye injuries: improving our practice. Community Eye Health. 2015;28(91):41‒43.
  4. Shah A, Blackhall K, Ker K, et al. Educational interventions for the prevention of eye injuries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;4:CD006527.
  5. Négrel AD, Thylefors B. The global impact of eye injuries. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 1998;5(3):143‒169.
  6. McGwin G, Xie A, Owsley C.

    Rate of eye injury in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123(7):970‒976.

  7. Pagan‒Duran B. Preventing Eye Injuries. American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2006.
  8. McCall BP, Horwitz IB, Taylor OA. Occupational eye injury and risk reduction: Kentucky workers' compensation claim analysis 1994‒2003.

    Inj Prev. 2009;15(3):176‒182.

  9. Mansouri MR, Hosseini M, Mohebi M, et al. Work‒related eye injury: the main cause of ocular trauma in Iran. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010;20(4):770‒775.
  10. Patel D. Preventing eye injuries. Community Eye Health. 2015;28(91):51.

  11. 2013 The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health/Eye Safety.
  12. United States Department of Labor. Occupational Safety & Health Administration, 2016.
  13. Matela D. Watch Out: The Importance of Protecting Your Eyes in the Industrial Workplace, 2008.
  14. Strahlman E, Elman M, Daub E, et al.

    Causes of pediatric eye injuries. A population‒based study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108(4):603‒606.

Source: https://medcraveonline.com/AOVS/eye-injury-prevention-mini-review.html

Preventing eye injuries

Eye injuries: prevention

E-learning Director: International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Find articles by Daksha Patel

The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach.

In general, the first step in prevention is to inform people about the risks so that they can either avoid them or take action to protect their eyes.

People can be informed by means of appropriate safety messages (e.g. on posters) in the areas where eyes are at risk, or through a range of media campaigns.

In some environments, such as in industrial settings, messages can be supported by education/training sessions.

‘In some high-risk environments, information and education is not enough’

Prevention messages and education certainly increase people's knowledge about avoiding and protecting themselves against risks, but there is insufficient evidence that these, by themselves, will result in changed behaviour in the long term.

A recent Cochrane review2 indicates that the overall impact of education is short-lived and that it often needs to be reinforced or supported in practical ways. For example, in high-risk environments (e.g.

agricultural and industrial settings) where people are advised to wear protective eyewear (safety glasses), it might be necessary to also provide the correct eyewear. This will improve compliance.

When considering the use of protective eyewear, it is important to pay attention to the practicalities: is the eyewear comfortable to use, and is it suited to the task at hand? Eye protection has to be suitable in its visual properties (i.e. can people see well enough?), size and weight and must have the appropriate strength of material for the protection required.

The influence of legislation on risk reduction has been well documented. In the UK, studies have demonstrated a reduction of up to 73% in motor vehicle-related eye injuries after the introduction of compulsory seat belt use.1

Injuries in the home lack a specific pattern of aetiology and are therefore the most challenging to prevent. Creating general awareness about the safe use of domestic chemicals, kitchen equipment or gardening tools is therefore essential. Safety standards for toys, tools and home equipment might also be needed in some countries.

Suggestions for the prevention of eye injuries at individual and community level

Prevention at individual levelPrevention at community/public health level
Home Keep sharp objects/chemicals away from children and look for safety standards in household products Raise safety awareness on the use of tools and kitchenware around the house
Industry Emphasise the use of helmets and eye protection Raise awareness and advise industries on safer modifications of the work environment. May require introduction of safety legislation
Agricultural Encourage the use of eye protection, particularly at harvest time Audit injuries and their seasonality so that appropriate advice/education can be provided e.g. to fruit pickers or during grain harvests
Sport Encourage the use of eye protection and/or helmets, e.g. for contact sports and racquet sports Consider advocating for legislation to encourage compliance with protective eyewear use
Conflict Give advice on the importance of using helmets and protective eyewear Lobby government to provide protective gear and appropriate training for soldiers
Assault Difficult to advice specific action at individual level Encourage and support multidisciplinary action to reduce violence at a community level
Transport Encourage motorists to wear seatbelts and cyclists and motorcycle users to wear eye protection Advocate for legislation to support compliance
Fireworks Promote keeping a safe distance during firework use, especially for children Organise prevention messages in media during periods of festivity
Contact lenses Give advice on contact lens wearing habits and discourage overnight use Raise awareness among eye workers on lens types and correct wearing habits for contact lens users

Despite the challenges, prevention is essential. Table 1 gives suggestions for the prevention of the most common eye injuries, both at an individual and at a community/public health level.

Overleaf there is a case study on prevention in the agricultural environment and one looking at evidence on eye injury prevention in a work setting.

In our online edition, there is also a case study looking at the prevention of road traffic accidents in Kenya by ensuring that commercial drivers have good visual health and good visual acuity (www.cehjournal.

org/article/vision-testing-to-prevent-road-traffic-accidents-in-kenya/). This will in turn help to prevent eye injuries. A next step would be the introduction of seat belt wearing – backed up by legislation – to prevent an accident from causing blinding injuries.

1. Hall NF, Denning AM, Elkington AR. et al. The eye and the seatbelt in Wessex.Br J Ophthalmol69:317, 1985 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

2. Shah A, Blackhall K, Ker K, Patel D.Educational interventions for the prevention of eye injuries.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2009, Issue 4. Art. No. CD006527. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. CD006527.pub3.CD006527.pub3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Articles from Community Eye Health are provided here courtesy of International Centre for Eye Health

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4790163/

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