Can blueberries boost the brain?

Feed your brain with foods that make you smarter

Can blueberries boost the brain?

The foods we eat play an important role not only in our physical appearance and performance, but also in our brain function.

Packing your plate with brain-boosting foods can help enhance cognitive function by improving memory and increasing concentration.

The natural compounds in some foods nurture important neurotransmitters, which improve cognitive abilities and may even help chase away depression and the risk of some degenerative diseases. Here are seven foods to improve brain power and make you smarter.

1. Dark chocolate

This delicious treat is filled with brain-boosting compounds, antioxidants and just enough caffeine to boost serotonin and put you in a good mood. Dark chocolate contains flavonol, which helps boost the circulatory system and promotes better blood flow to the brain.

In a study conducted by Northumbria University in the U.K, researchers found that participants were less mentally drained and performed better on simple math tests after consuming a beverage rich in cocoa flavonols, compared to participants given a beverage without flavonols.

2. Blueberries

Known as one of the best brain foods due to its high levels of antioxidants, the blueberry contains anthocyanin, a compound that helps protect brain neurons linked to memory. According to a USDA study, a diet rich in blueberry extract may improve motor skills and short-term memory. This little berry may even help reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

3. Kale

One of the reasons kale has recently gained fame as a super food is for its powerful anti-aging effects on the brain.

Iron deficiencies have been linked to poor mood, foggy thinking and other cognitive thinking; kale is so rich in iron it can help you overcome these issues.

 According to a study conducted by Harvard Medical School, eating kale helped lower brain age by one to two years.

4. Fatty fish

Coldwater, fatty fish, such as wild salmon and anchovies contain high levels of essential fatty acids EPA and DHA which have been linked to superior cognition, improved memory and reduced risk of degenerative mental diseases such as dementia. DHA is considered a vital nutrient when it comes to mental development and enhanced learning ability. Its polyunsaturated fats also help protect the brain from accelerated aging and can help boost mood and reduce depression.

5. Nuts

This wonderful, portable food, with a mix of protein, complex carbs and healthy fats is a perfect brain-boosting snack to add to your daily diet. Nuts are rich in vitamin E, which can help ease cognitive decline as you age.

The brain-shaped walnut may be especially helpful.

It contains protein, in addition to vitamin E, vitamin B and both omega-6 and omega 3 fatty acids, which are an excellent source of nourishment for the nervous system and may lead to clearer thinking and happier thoughts.

6. Garlic

Raw garlic is one of the most potent nutritional foods. It helps strengthen the cardiovascular system, which in turn provides positive benefits for brain functionality.

Garlic also contains inflammation-reducing properties which may improve overall cognitive function including memory and learning abilities.

Aged garlic extract has been shown to protect the brain against function loss and a study in The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging showed compelling evidence of dietary garlic as an alternative treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.

7. Oysters

Typically known as a libido-or fertility-enhancing food, oysters also contain several nutrients vital for healthy brain function. Rich in selenium, magnesium and protein, this shellfish has been found to improve cognition and mood. Its high levels of iron and zinc can help increase concentration, sharpen memory and improve the ability to easily recall information.

Making these foods a part of your regular diet while decreasing your consumption of highly processed foods may help sharpen your thinking over time.

Avoid large amounts of alcohol, sugars and corn syrup and include healthy sources of protein in each meal and snack.

For the best benefits, choose wild caught fish and organic produce as often as possible, since some pesticides have been found to be neurotoxins that may lower IQ.


9 Ways Blueberries Boost Brain Function

Can blueberries boost the brain?

Foods that have an incredible array of health benefits that go well beyond just their nutrient value are considered Superfoods.

  These foods are typically loaded with a combination of critical fatty acids, anti-oxidant phytonutrients and essential amino acids.

    Blueberries contain an extraordinary amount of unique phytonutrients and impressive anti-oxidant scores that make them a superfood.

Blueberries are a native plant to North America.  They grow in shrubs that can be anywhere from 8-10 inches tall or up to 5-6 feet tall.  Maine is considered the largest low bush blueberry producing country.  Michigan produces the most high bush growing blueberries.

This summer superfood is loaded with antioxidant phytonutrients called anthocyanidins.  These nutrients powerfully neutralize free radical damage to the collagen matrix of cells and tissues.  In addition, anthocyanins have been shown to improve capillary integrity and enhance the effects of Vitamin C (1, 2).

BlueBerries Are a Powerful SuperFood:

The anti-oxidant power of blueberries has been shown to be particularly useful in stabilizing brain function and protecting the neural tissue from oxidative stress (3, 4).   Studies have shown improvements in memory and learning while reducing symptoms of depression (5, 6, 7)

The riper the berries the more anti-oxidant power they contain.  To assess the ripeness of the berries look at the color.  Riper berries are a darker blue.  Blueberry season is mid-late summer, June – August.  Most frozen berries are picked at maximal ripeness and frozen.

Blueberries also contain other major phytonutrients including pterostilbene, resveratrol, flavonols and tannins.  All of these have been shown to inhibit the development of cancer cell growth (8).

How to Purchase the Best Blueberries:

Blueberries are necessary to purchase organic due to the high amount of petrochemical pesticides that are used on the non-organic varieties.

  In June of 2014, the Environmental Working Group labled non-organic blueberries as a significant concern.  Blueberries grown in the US were the 14th most pesticide laden 53 fruits and vegetables tested.

  They are just off the list of “Dirty Dozen” with this finding (9).

The term “wild” is considered a marketing term that producers of low bush blueberries have used to help sell their blueberries.  Wild blueberries may or may not be organic.  One should always check labeling and certifications.

Frozen blueberries are fantastic in shakes and smoothies.  Blueberry seeds are significantly smaller than that of other berries such as strawberries, raspberries & blackberries.  The small size makes them less challenging to digest and more palatable in a shake than the other berries.

Blueberries Benefit the Body By:

1.  Feeding Your Microbiome:  The polyphenol anti-oxidants help to preferentially enhance the development of good microbial species that help you burn fat, absorb key nutrients and detoxify wastes.

2.  Protection from UV Radiation:  The anthocyanin anti-oxidants in blueberries help protect us from the damaging effects of UV radiation exposure.

3.  Improve Brain Function:  The unique array of anti-oxidants in blueberries has been shown to have powerful effects on cognition, mood and memory.

Best Ways to Use Blueberries:

1)  Shakes and Smoothies:  This is my favorite way to utilize blueberries.  Because their seeds are so small they mix well and don’t have the seedy consistency that you get with strawberries and raspberries.  I prefer to use frozen berries for my shakes and smoothies.

2) Salads:  Mix some fresh berries in salads and other veggie dishes

3) Grain-Free Cereal:  You can use blueberries in various grain-free cereal creations.  I to put cacao nibs, coconut flakes, other nuts and seeds and blueberries in a bowl with coconut milk or coconut yogurt and make a great tasting cereal alternative.

4) Blueberry Muffins:  We have various blueberry muffin recipes on our website that are absolutely amazing!!!

5) Blueberry Cookies:  Blueberries can also be combined and made into some incredible cookies that I LOVE!!!!

6) Ice Cream:  This fruit is a wonderful addition to a healthy homemade ice cream

9. Environmental Working Group. All 48 fruits and vegetables with pesticide residue data. Link Here

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This is your brain on blueberries

Can blueberries boost the brain?
Blueberry Man by jessmonster. CC BY-NC 2.0

What’s blue, round, sweet, grows on a bush and can boost your brainpower? If you answered blueberries you would be correct. Or that should be: ‘mostly correct’. The ‘brain-boosting power’ part needs a bit more science to catch up to the headlines, but it is looking promising that blueberries may be one food worthy of a ‘superfood’ title.

There is so much to be gained by having plenty of plant-based foods in your diet. While it may be tempting to stake your claim that health is all about the superfood du jour, it the variety of foods you eat that are key to good health.

Blueberries are one food that pop up regularly on ‘superfood’ lists. Long promoted for their brain-boosting power, is there much merit to the claims and should blueberries be a regular part of your diet?

Berries on the brain

The link between blueberries and the brain has grown observations that people who eat lots of fruits and vegetables over their lifetime have a lower risk of dementia. Scientists have singled in on one particular class of chemicals found in plant foods, called flavonoids, that may be the ‘active ingredient’ that could be protecting the brain from damage.

A collection of flavonoids called anthocyanidins have been getting even closer attention because of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Anthocyanidins are abundant in berries and give these foods their bright blue, red and purple colours.

So how could the anthocyanidins in berries be of benefit for the brain? The high amounts of antioxidants in blueberries may be one way they help protect brain cells from damage.

Berries also change the way that neurons in the brain communicate in pathways involved in inflammation and cell survival.

Yet more research has shown that berries can also improve cognition, motor control and enhance neuroplasticity.

All about antioxidants

The antioxidant content of blueberries features front and centre to help explain their health benefits.

While there is more to food than antioxidants, blueberries are certainly packed full of them as this graph below shows where the antioxidant content of a range of foods was measured and compared.

Top marks for noticing that in the antioxidant superfood arms race, it is red kidney beans that you want more of in your belly. Perhaps with a blueberry dessert chaser.

Antioxidant capacity of foods measured using ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity). Wu et al. 2004

Blueberries boost the brain

An ageing population means a greater number of diseases linked to older age such as dementia. There is no certain way to prevent dementia, but scientists have been looking closer at the role that diet can play in reducing the risk of developing it and blueberries have attracted their interest.

One recent clinical trial that attracted a lot of media attention used a concentrated form of blueberry juice – high in anthocyanidins. The trial involved 26 healthy adults aged between 65 and 77.

Half of the people drank concentrated blueberry juice each day for 12 weeks. The blueberry concentrate was equal to eating 230 grams of whole blueberries each day.

The other half of the volunteers drank a placebo drink that had a blackcurrant taste, but no anthocyanidins in it.

The blueberry concentrate was equal to eating 230 grams of whole blueberries each day

After 12 weeks, people drinking the blueberry juice showed improvements in cognitive function, blood flow to the brain and activation of brain areas linked with cognitive function. There was also evidence suggesting an improvement in working memory too.

Blueberries may also have benefits for the brain by keeping it active during a mid-afternoon slump.

In one study, volunteers who drank a blueberry smoothie in the morning did much better at mental tasks in the mid-afternoon than people who had a placebo drink.

Again, it is ly the antioxidants in blueberries that stimulate the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain to help keep the mind fresh.

A heart health boost

Eating berries regularly is also linked to improved heart health. Berries can have a range of cardiovascular benefits from their anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, hypoglycaemic and anticoagulant actions.

From a review of 22 randomised-controlled trials involving over 1200 people, regularly eating berries could significantly lower LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting glucose, body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The cell signalling molecule involved in inflammation (tumour necrosis factor-α) also drops when people switch to eating more berries.

Fresh or frozen?

Fresh is great, but for convenience (and price) and when they are season, you can’t go past having frozen blueberries on hand.

And as a bonus for choosing frozen, because they are processed and frozen soon after picking, the nutrient losses are small.

In fact, a study from the Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology found that drying and freezing blueberries has no impact on the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extracts.

Getting more blueberries in your diet

Here are some top tips to get more blueberries in your diet.

  • Add blueberries as your topping of choice to your favourite breakfast cereal
  • Sprinkle blueberries over green salad, or toss lettuce and sliced fresh fennel or celery with orange sections and blueberries, then drizzle with olive oil and vinegar
  • For an almost-instant blueberry sauce, microwave fresh, frozen or drained canned blueberries with a spoonful or two of your favourite jam. Serve warm over frozen yoghurt, sorbet or rice pudding
  • For a big blueberry hit, a smoothie is the way to go. Try 1/2 cup Greek yoghurt, 1/2 cup water, 1 cup of frozen berries, 1 banana and 1 teaspoon honey in a blender.

What it all means

An ageing population means a greater number of diseases linked to older age such as dementia. There is no certain way to prevent dementia, but scientists are looking closely at the role that diet can play in reducing the risk of developing it.

Choosing a diet high in a variety of fruits and vegetables and including some delicious berries may go some way to reducing the risk of declining brain function in older age.

And when it comes to blueberries, this is a case where the superfood hype may actually have a bit of solid science to support it.


Eat Smart for a Healthier Brain

Can blueberries boost the brain?

From the WebMD Archives

There's no denying that as we age chronologically, our body ages right along with us. But research is showing that you can increase your chances of maintaining a healthy brain well into your old age if you add these “smart” foods to your daily eating regimen.

Blueberries. “Brainberries” is what Steven Pratt, MD, author of Superfoods Rx: Fourteen Foods Proven to Change Your Life, calls these tasty fruits. Pratt, who is also on staff at Scripps Memorial Hospital in La Jolla, Calif.

, says that in animal studies researchers have found that blueberries help protect the brain from oxidative stress and may reduce the effects of age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or dementia.

Studies have also shown that diets rich in blueberries significantly improved both the learning capacity and motor skills of aging rats, making them mentally equivalent to much younger rats. Ann Kulze, MD, author of Dr.

Ann's 10-Step Diet: A Simple Plan for Permanent Weight Loss & Lifelong Vitality, recommends adding at least 1 cup of blueberries a day in any form — fresh, frozen, or freeze-dried.

Wild salmon. Deep-water fish, such as salmon, are rich in omega-3 essential fatty acids, which are essential for brain function, says Kulze.

Both she and Pratt recommend wild salmon for its “cleanliness” and the fact that it is in plentiful supply. Omega-3s also contain anti-inflammatory substances.

Other oily fish that provide the benefits of omega-3s are sardines and herring, says Kulze; she recommends a 4-ounce serving, two to three times a week.

Nuts and seeds. Nuts and seeds are good sources of vitamin E, says Pratt, explaining that higher levels of vitamin E correspond with less cognitive decline as you get older.

Add an ounce a day of walnuts, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, filberts, almonds, cashews, peanuts, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, flax seed, and unhydrogenated nut butters such as peanut butter, almond butter, and tahini.

Raw or roasted doesn't matter, although if you're on a sodium-restricted diet, buy unsalted nuts.

Avocados. Avocados are almost as good as blueberries in promoting brain health, says Pratt. “I don't think the avocado gets its due,” agrees Kulze. True, the avocado is a fatty fruit, but, says Kulze, it's a monounsaturated fat, which contributes to healthy blood flow.

“And healthy blood flow means a healthy brain,” she says. Avocados also lower blood pressure, says Pratt, and as hypertension is a risk factor for the decline in cognitive abilities, a lower blood pressure should promote brain health.

Avocados are high in calories, however, so Kulze suggests adding just 1/4 to 1/2 of an avocado to one daily meal as a side dish.

Whole grains. Whole grains, such as oatmeal, whole-grain breads, and brown rice can reduce the risk for heart disease. “Every organ in the body is dependent on blood flow,” says Pratt.

“If you promote cardiovascular health, you're promoting good flow to the organ system, which includes the brain.” While wheat germ is not technically a whole grain, it also goes on Kulze's “superfoods” list because in addition to fiber, it has vitamin E and some omega-3s.

Kulze suggests 1/2 cup of whole-grain cereal, 1 slice of bread two-thee times day, or 2 tablespoons of wheat germ a day.

Beans. Beans are “under-recognized” and “economical,” says Kulze. They also stabilize glucose (blood sugar) levels.

The brain is dependent on glucose for fuel, Kulze explains, and since it can't store the glucose, it relies on a steady stream of energy — which beans can provide.

Any beans will do, says Kulze, but she is especially partial to lentils and black beans and recommends 1/2 cup every day.

Pomegranate juice. Pomegranate juice (you can eat the fruit itself but with its many tiny seeds, it's not nearly as convenient) offers potent antioxidant benefits, says Kulze, which protect the brain from the damage of free radicals.

“Probably no part of the body is more sensitive to the damage from free radicals as the brain,” says board-certified neurologist David Perlmutter, MD, author of The Better Brain Book.

Citrus fruits and colorful vegetables are also high on Perlmutter's list of “brainy” foods because of their antioxidant properties — “the more colorful the better,” he says.

Because pomegranate juice has added sugar (to counteract its natural tartness), you don't want to go overboard, says Kulze; she recommends approximately 2 ounces a day, diluted with spring water or seltzer.

Freshly brewed tea. Two to three cups a day of freshly brewed tea — hot or iced — contains a modest amount of caffeine which, when used “judiciously,” says Kulze — can boost brain power by enhancing memory, focus, and mood.

Tea also has potent antioxidants, especially the class known as catechines, which promotes healthy blood flow. Bottled or powdered teas don't do the trick, however, says Kulze. “It has to be freshly brewed.” Tea bags do count, however.

Dark chocolate. Let's end with the good stuff.

Dark chocolate has powerful antioxidant properties, contains several natural stimulants, including caffeine, which enhance focus and concentration, and stimulates the production of endorphins, which helps improve mood.

One-half ounce to 1 ounce a day will provide all the benefits you need, says Kulze. This is one “superfood” where more is not better. “You have to do this one in moderation,” says Kulze.

Published June 12, 2006.

SOURCES: Steven Pratt, MD, author, Superfoods RX: Fourteen Foods Provento Change Your Life. Ann Kulze, MD, author, Dr. Ann's 10-Step Diet: ASimple Plan for Permanent Weight Loss & Lifelong Vitality. DavidPerlmutter, MD, author, The Better Brain Book.

© 2006 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved.


6 Benefits Of Eating Blueberries For Brain Health, From Lowering Dementia Risk To Improving Memory

Can blueberries boost the brain?

We all know blueberries are good for our health. They contain antioxidants that help protect our bodies from disease and age-related health risks. This super fruit has also gained a reputation for being a top brain food that can boost cognitive function and improve memory, even in old age.

Blueberries are vitamin-rich berries that boost brain health via their high content of antioxidants, specifically flavonoids.

Daily consumption of this “brain berry” has been found to slow memory impairments and motor coordination that are typically associated with aging.

The native North American fruit, whether it's consumed fresh, frozen, canned, or as an extract, can deliver 6 brain benefits, from preventing or treating dementia to improving memory.

Read More: Diet And The Human Brain: How Food Nutrients Affect Cognitive Health

Lowers Dementia Risk

Our cognitive function tends to decline as we age, but it's better preserved when we follow a diet rich in plant-based foods, blueberries.

In a recent study, researchers found healthy older adults (ages 65 to 77) who drank 30 milliliters of concentrated blueberry juice (the equivalent of 230 grams of berries), had a significant increase in brain activity, blood flow and even memory compared to the placebo group.

Flavonoids, abundant in blueberries, are ly to be an important factor in what's causing these effects, which can lower dementia risk.

Reduces Effects Of Alzheimer's

The antioxidants in blueberries can provide a real benefit in improving memory and cognitive function in older adults, and potentially prevent Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's is a form of dementia that affects parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language.

A 2016 study found blueberries can effectively treat only those patients who already show signs of mental impairment.

Researchers from the University of Cincinnati conducted tests and a brain scan on older adults who were beginning to show signs of mild cognitive impairment — a risk factor for Alzheimer's.

The participants were placed into two groups: one group ate a placebo powder once a day for 16 weeks, while the other consumed a freeze-dried blueberry powder (equivalent to a single cup of berries).

Adults who ate the blueberry powder showed an improvement in memory and improved access to words and increased activity in the brain.

Berry fruits, blueberries, can help the brain stay healthy via compounds that protect brain cells from free radicals.

A 2012 study suggests berry fruits change the way neurons in the brain communicate, therefore, preventing inflammation in the brain that can contribute to neuronal damage and improve both motor control and cognition.

The researchers wonder if these benefits are a result of individual compounds shared between berry fruits, or whether the unique combinations of chemicals in each berry fruit have similar effects.

Boosts Brain Cells

Adding blueberries to your diet can increase the birth rate of brain cells in the hippocampus – the brain region responsible for memory — according to a 2002 study by the US Agricultural Research Service (ARS).

Aged rats were fed blueberry supplements equal to one cup of blueberries in humans for two months.

These rats experienced improved memory performance via the hippocampus, which is one of the few brain areas that continuously replaces neurons.

Boosts Concentration, Memory

Eating a bowl of blueberries can significantly improve concentration and memory five hours later.

A 2009 study conducted at Reading University found participants who drank a blueberry smoothie in the morning did much better at mental tasks in the mid afternoon than those who had a different drink.

Those who didn't have a blueberry smoothie saw their performance decline by 15 to 20 percent. British researchers believe the antioxidants in blueberries stimulate the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain, keeping the mind active.

Read More: Foods That Can Help Improve Your Intelligence, Alertness, Focus, And Memory

Boosts Mental Health

Blueberries can deliver a dose of happiness to people who suffer from depression. A 2016 study found eating blueberries can help reduce the genetic and biochemical drivers behind depression and suicidal tendencies linked to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

To investigate what biological factors might contribute to PTSD and its effects, researchers developed a method that induces effects analogous to PTSD in rats, such as exhibiting fear rather than curiosity when presented with an unfamiliar object.

This was followed by observing how eating a diet rich in blueberries influences those factors.

The researchers noted some of the PTSD- rats fed blueberries (equivalent to two cups per day) showed a decrease in SKA2 levels — a gene expressed at abnormally low levels in people who have committed suicide — in the blood, and the brain's prefrontal cortex and hippocampus compared to non-PTSD rats.

The findings suggest blueberries can have an effect on the expression of this gene. Previous research also supports a blueberry-enriched diet can increase levels of serotonin in the brain, which might help alleviate depression for people with PTSD. Overall, the super fruit can improve mental health.

It's important to talk to your doctor before using blueberries as medicine to prevent or treat brain-related health issues.

See Also:

How To Eat Smart, And Reduce Risk For Illnesses Dementia And Depression

Red Wine Compound Keeps Brain Young, Preserves Neural Connections


Blueberry Supplementation Improves Memory in Older Adults

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About The Buzz: Blueberries Boost Memory Retention and Coordination? – Have A Plant

Can blueberries boost the brain?

TheBUZZ Blueberries boost memory retention and coordination?

WHAT THEY’RE SAYINGAntioxidants in blueberries promote memory and coordination by enhancing existing brain cell connections and improving neurocellular communication.


The consumption of diets rich in antioxidants such as those found in fruits and vegetables may lower the risk of developing age-related diseases that decrease the structure and function of neurons in the brain.

Research suggests that the antioxidants found in berry fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, may help lesson damage caused by free radicals to the area in the brain that sends messages to the body, thus maintaining normal communication of the neurons in your brain.

More specifically, antioxidants in berries may protect against, and even reverse, some age-related memory loss by preventing free-radical damage and improving blood flow.

They are also thought to exert positive effects on learning and memory by enhancing existing brain cell connections, improving cellular communications and stimulating the brain to produce more neurons and maintain the structure and function of already existing neurons.


Researchers at Tufts University and elsewhere have been investigating the role of berries in protecting the brain.

While much of the research has been done with rats, it suggests that compared to control rats on a standard diet, aging rats perform better in memory tests, coordination, and balance when fed blueberries.

While older rats still did not perform as well as younger rats, if similar improvements are possible in humans, these gains could improve quality of life as we age.¹

A study was recently reported in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry about the effects of 12 weeks of daily consumption of wild blueberry juice in a sample of older human adults with early memory changes.

In the study, one group of volunteers drank the equivalent of 2-2 l/2 cups of a commercially-available blueberry juice every day while a control group drank a beverage without blueberry juice. Scientists reported that the blueberry juice group showed significant improvement on learning and memory tests.

² More comprehensive human trials are needed to study the preventative potential of berries.


Eat your blueberries and a variety of fruits and vegetables! While research about blueberries and their neurological effects is ongoing, just remember the more fruits and vegetables you eat (including nutritious blueberries) the better! Blueberries along with all fruits and vegetables are packed with vitamins, minerals and other beneficial health-promoting compounds. While the effects of aging on the body are hard to prevent, fruits and vegetables can be some of your best offense to leading a long and healthy life!
Top 10 Reasons to Eat Your Fruits and Vegetables

¹ Joseph, James, Daniel Nadeau, Anne Underwood. “The Color Code A Revolutionary Eating Plan for Optimum Health.” Hyperion, NY, 2002.

² Krikorian, Robert, Marcelle D. Shidler, Tiffany A. Nash, Wilhelmina Kalt, Melinda R. Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, James A. Joseph. “Blueberry Supplementation Improves Memory in Older Adults.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2010: 58(7): 3996-4000.