- Definition of centrifuge
- CoronaVirus Lockdown: A Rare Opportunity to Live a Full Life
- This bad habit is ly the No. 1 factor making your children fat — and it has nothing to do with food
- Overfat Adults and Children in Developed Countries: The Public Health Importance of Identifying Excess Body Fat
- Calculation of Fat Mass
- Economics of Overfat
- Who is Overfat
- Sarcopenic Overfat
- Abdominal Overfat
Definition of centrifuge
[ sen-truh-fyooj ]/ ˈsɛn trəˌfyudʒ /an apparatus that rotates at high speed and by centrifugal force separates substances of different densities, as milk and cream. Also centrifugalize. to subject to the action of a centrifuge.1795–1805; < French, noun use of centrifuge (adj.
) < New Latin centrifugus center-fleeing; see centrifugalcen·trif·u·ga·tion [sen-trif-yuh-gey-shuh n, -trif-uh-] /sɛnˌtrɪf yəˈgeɪ ʃən, -ˌtrɪf ə-/, nounre·cen·tri·fuge, verb (used with object), re·cen·tri·fuged, re·cen·tri·fug·ing.
centrifugal force, centrifugal nerve, centrifugal pump, centrifugalize, centrifugate, centrifuge, centrilobular, centrilobular emphysema, centring, centriole, centripetalDictionary.com Unabridged the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc.
- Sudden changes of spinning speed can cause severe damage to the centrifuge.
- A centrifuge used for running the Babcock milk test, which determined the percentage of butterfat.
- Right now I could eat a dinner raw, in a centrifuge, and keep it down.The Dope on Mars|John Michael Sharkey
- The “torfuge” (Fig. 31) is said to be a very satisfactory substitute for the centrifuge, and is readily portable.A Manual of Clinical Diagnosis|James Campbell Todd
- Centrifuge—hand, electric, or water-power (Figs. 16 and 17).A Manual of Clinical Diagnosis|James Campbell Todd
- For example, the centrifuge used in the butterfat test, discovered in 1890 by Stephen M. Babcock, survived in several forms.
any of various rotating machines that separate liquids from solids or dispersions of one liquid in another, by the action of centrifugal forceany of various rotating devices for subjecting human beings or animals to varying accelerations for experimental purposes(tr) to subject to the action of a centrifugecentrifugation (ˌsɛntrɪfjʊˈɡeɪʃən), nounCollins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012An apparatus consisting essentially of a compartment spun about a central axis to separate contained materials of different densities, or to separate colloidal particles suspended in a liquid.To rotate something in a centrifuge or to separate, dehydrate, or test by means of this apparatus.The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.A machine that separates substances of different densities in a sample by rotating the sample at very high speed, causing the substance to be displaced outward, sometimes through a series of filters or gratings. Denser substances tend to be displaced from the center more than ones that are less dense.The American Heritage® Science Dictionary Copyright © 2011. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
CoronaVirus Lockdown: A Rare Opportunity to Live a Full Life
Death from Covid 19, isn’t my worry. Being a policeman for 29 years, I have seen it closely, many times. But what troubles me is the anxiety and panic that you, my friends, are facing.
Being a practitioner of positive psychology, I want to lessen your stress, share your fear, and suggest some positive interventions which may help you to turn your crisis of seclusion and perhaps death into a rare opportunity to live a full life.
In my professional career, I cribbed that I didn’t have enough time to follow what I loved. Maybe, you also wanted to spend more quality time with your parents, wife and children, but in chasing the illusions of career success, you couldn’t.
Similarly, perhaps me, you also wished to reread your favorite books, listen to your teenage songs and watch movies that ignited your high school fantasies, but you couldn’t.
I guess, at some point, you also shunned junk food, became super regular with your physical fitness regimen, meditated daily, decluttered your room and life, and practiced gratitude but couldn’t turn them into super firm habits.
Perhaps, you blamed it on the scarcity of time and accepted whatever shit seemed urgent. You yearned for solitude, but you only got obstructions and obtrusions.
Now, Covid-19 has compelled me to sit home and follow social distancing. I am living a relatively lonely life. But it has given me the luxury of hindsight, and therefore, I am making a choice that I won’t allow my loneliness to make me sad and depressed, and I would use it as an opportunity to live a full life.
Research by psychologists Bowling, Edelmann, Leaver & Hoekel, demonstrates that loneliness increases the risk of psychological problems, physical impairment, and low life satisfaction.
Therefore, I have decided not to fall prey to the dangers of isolation but create new plans and turn my loneliness into an opportunity for social strengthening, family bonding, physical fitness and fulfill my spiritual needs.
Self-regulation and changing your habits
The Research by psychologists Bumeister, Gailliot, DeWall, and Oaten says that self-regulation, a muscle, can be built and strengthened by doing something again and again.
However, the type and nature of the exercise would differ from domain to domain, depending on which kind of self-regulation you want to build and strengthen.
But whatever you repeatedly do in any area would improve your self-regulation and help in habit formation.
So you can apply self-regulation to what you need to learn and enjoy — cut down the trans fats of the big cheeseburger which you can’t resist, reduce your alcohol intake, pray regularly, or strengthen your daily fitness routine. Now, you can create nudges and build your self-regulation. So you should not hoard food that you want to get rid of, instead, stockpile tasty and healthy stuff.
Photo by Form on Unsplash
Just Move — any form of exercise
Whether you are fitness enthusiasts or not, you need to move while you are in Social Distancing or Self-Quarantine.
Move means any kind of exercise — from merely moving around in your room or house to yoga, stretching, treadmill, cycling, cross trainer, or doing free weights.
Whatever you and whatever you can do in the cozy comfort of your room or house, you must do to enhance your personal and family’s well being.
Harvard professor John Ratey and Hagerman say that exercise generates endorphins that calm the mind. In other words, physical activities evoke positive emotions in your mood, lessens your anxiety, anger, depression, and neuroticism.
Photo by Taylor Wilcox on Unsplash
Movies, Videos, and Books
This is an excellent time to see your favorite movies, videos, television, or streaming programs. However, the choice is the key here. You should not waste your time watching or reading any random film or book.
You should see your old favorite movies and read your chosen books which you have forgotten over the years.
It would not just bring back beautiful memories but also strengthen the lessons you had drawn but overlooked in the daily hustle-bustle of life.
But watch a new movie or read a new book, if your friend recommends it. Before you start watching a new movie or book, spend 10 minutes going through its reviews. Pick it if you are sure of its worth.
And if you aren’t a movie or book buff, you should try reading your high school stories or poems. It would take you to the beautiful memories associated with your school, classmates, and teachers.
Photo by Yeshi Kangrang on Unsplash
Emotional intelligence is your capacity to reason about your emotions and use them to assist in reasoning. Thus, emotional intelligence helps to identify your feelings, others’ emotions, and understand them. Accordingly, you can adapt your behavior, create empathic connections with your acquaintances, friends, family, and make better decisions.
But what’s the easy way to do it?
Journaling your thoughts and emotions on a simple piece of paper is a powerful way to understand your and others’ feelings. In different words, journaling helps you to introspect and thus make you emotionally intelligent.
So in this free time at home, you should take a pen and paper and write your blessings of the last year. Surprisingly, your count of blessings would be much higher than you had anticipated. Similarly, think and write about what good happened during the day? What went wrong, and why? What lessons could you draw from the good and bad happenings of the day? Just write it.
Writing a journal is a great way to examine your behavior — why you behave in a particular manner? Last week, when you got irritated with a junior and scolded him unfairly, could you have done better? Similarly, last month, when your friend called, you didn’t take his call, why did you do that? Or when you sent a congratulatory message to a friend, and he gave an unenthusiastic reply — ‘thx.’ How did you feel about it? Just think and write. Get your emotions out, understand your feelings, and watch your behavior and actions by writing on a small piece of paper.
Psychologists Baumeister & Leary emphasize that human beings need to belong and have close and long term social relationships. So you need social bonds in committed relationships to experience wellbeing. Keep your phones, tabs, laptops, and desktops ready to fight seclusion.
Make sure; they will function without any hindrance for the next three months. They would help you connect with your friends, relatives, and acquaintances and enhance your bonds and relationships. You should use this precious time to play some simple games cards and carom etc. in the cozy comfort of your home.
You would not just relive your childhood memories but would find a new love for your loved ones.
Photo by Wil Stewart on Unsplash
Share Enthusiastically and Compliment Generously
Maybe in the hustle-bustle of daily life, you forgot to send a congratulatory message to a close friend on his promotion, birthday, or wedding anniversary? Perhaps, you forgot to send condolences to an office colleague who lost her father last month. This is the time to think about what you missed? Draft a beautiful message and just send it.
Similarly, now, it’s time to share your positive events with your friends and family. The research by Shelly & Gosnell demonstrates that disclosing positive events and having good responders benefit both the individual and the relationship.
If you did not share your recent success or happiness with your friends, this is the right opportunity to do it.
From here, you may move forward to create high-quality connections with your acquaintances and intense love bonds with your close friends and family.
Similarly, if anyone shares her positive news, you should respond enthusiastically and say — ‘Wow, it is great news/achievement; tell me more about this. How did you do this? It’s wonderful.’ Your enthusiastic response will enhance your relationship with the sharer.
Maybe you are not a great fan of making video calls, because you love your privacy. But with video chat, you can show gestures, and see your friends’ emotions. Therefore, now, you should chat face to face and enhance your wellbeing.
Photo by Bekir Dönmez on Unsplash
Reflect through Meditation & Mindfulness
You wanted but somehow could never find time to observe mindfulness or meditation. This is the right time to do it. With mindfulness, you stay in the present and watch your thoughts, feelings, and actions. The practice of mindfulness also initiates self-dialogue. You talk to yourselves and pay attention to what you consider the most important. According to Dr.
Smalley, Professor at UCLA, mindfulness enhances your cognitive ability, and thus, you develop the capacity to think and respond to a situation in a better way. Said differently, mindfulness enables you to discipline your thoughts and saves you from being prejudiced or biased. And when you do get prejudiced, you realize it.
Thus, you become more open, kind, compassionate, and empathic for yourself and others.
Start with the drawer of your bedside table; declutter it! You should throw what you don’t need and arrange and what is chaotic. Take this exercise to your tables, cupboards, rooms, and the entire house.
You can extend decluttering to your smartphone, tab, laptop, and desktop to remove useless apps, files, downloads, and software.
Decluttering not just makes your place look neat, tidy, and orderly; it also soothes your mind and gives a feeling of accomplishment.
Make a checklist
A checklist or a to-do-list is an ideal tool to remember what you need to do. You can make this list the way you want it. You may arrange priority items on the top of the list and lower ones near the bottom. In a nutshell, you can design your checklist as you want it.
It is not necessary to make a time based — a daily or weekly checklist.
It could be a functional checklist — about all the essential items of a domain that you need to finish in the next couple of weeks or months. You may also write your monthly or yearly goals in it.
Your goals may relate to different domains of your life – personal, physical fitness, food habits, professional achievements, etc.
Atul Gawande, in his book The Checklist Manifesto, says that it’s not the errors of ignorance — mistakes you make because you don’t know enough, but the errors of ineptitude — mistakes you make because you don’t make proper use of what you know. A checklist saves you from making mistakes of what you know.
Making a checklist declutters your mind, and you get over the worry of forgetting an important task. Your brain gets at rest and calms down.
If you have never made a checklist in your life, make a humble beginning — make a packing list for your next travel plan.
You would realize that making a checklist is easy, and it gives enormous benefits also. So make today’s checklist and make it every day.
Learn to Work Remotely
You can work remotely; it is an excellent opportunity to learn to work from your home. You may be under confident in working remotely merely because you have never done it before. But it is damn easy.
Just learn how to operate various apps that help in video conferencing and writing or editing a document collectively.
You can also do — video conferencing and drafting or editing a report at the same time in a group.
According to William James, an American philosopher, and psychologist, your emotions only manifest your temperament and physical conditions, which are temporary. Your actions are more important than your feelings and thoughts. With the help of your self-discipline, you can avoid the impulse of your feelings, control your actions, and finally change your beliefs.
Death is just a thought; working for your safety and wellbeing is an action. Your actions are more important than your thoughts and emotions as your actions have the power to turn your anxiety and panic into hope and strength. So act now to achieve excellence, exhilaration, and exuberance.
(The author is a senior IPS officer and a practitioner of positive psychology)
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This bad habit is ly the No. 1 factor making your children fat — and it has nothing to do with food
Turn off the TV and tell your kids to go outside.
Watching television is the No. 1 “lifestyle habit” most commonly associated with childhood obesity, according to a study released Wednesday that was conducted by a team of researchers led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires on their children’s lifestyle habits at four years of age.
The researchers looked at five behaviors: physical activity, sleep time, TV time, plant-based food consumption and “ultra-processed” food consumption.
To calculate these behaviors’ health impacts, they measured the children’s body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure at four and then seven years of age.
“Unhealthy behaviors tend to overlap and interrelate,” said Martine Vrijheid, co-leader of the study and researcher in the ISGlobal Programme on Childhood & Environment.
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The study, published in the peer-reviewed journal Pediatric Obesity, was data from 1,480 children enrolled in a Spanish research network that studies the role of pollutants during pregnancy and their effects on children.
“ The researchers also measured the time spent by children on other sedentary activities, including reading, drawing and doing puzzles, but found that they did not appear to be associated with overweight or obesity. ”
The researchers also measured the time spent by children on other sedentary activities, including reading, drawing and doing puzzles, but found that they did not appear to be associated with overweight or obesity. One theory: Children may watch advertisements for food and beverages high in sugar, salt and saturated fat while watching their programs.
Watching TV has also been shown to disrupt sleep, the study added. People who regularly sleep less than seven hours a night have lower levels of certain “microRNAs,” molecules that play a key role in regulating vascular health and can be biological indicators of cardiovascular health, according to a separate 2018 study published in the journal Experimental Physiology.
Public health campaigns aimed at curbing childhood obesity aren’t stopping the problem — in fact, it’s getting worse. The share of American children between 2 and 19 years old who are obese grew from 14% in 1999 to 18.5% in 2016. There was also a significant jump in obesity among the youngest group of children, aged 2 to 5 years old, with 14% of that age group now considered obese.
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That’s according to a recently published study in the journal Pediatrics. The researchers, who studied data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination survey, found there had been no progress in stopping childhood obesity, despite campaigns former First Lady Michelle Obama’s “Let’s Move” initiative.
“Obesity is one of the biggest drivers of preventable chronic diseases and health care costs in the U.S.,” according to The State of Obesity public health project.
Estimates for these costs range from $147 billion to nearly $210 billion per year. The U.S.
is projected to spend almost 14% of its health budget on diseases linked to overweight and obesity between 2020 and 2050, according to the OECD’s “Burden of Obesity” report published in October.
(Alessandra Malito contributed to this story.)
Overfat Adults and Children in Developed Countries: The Public Health Importance of Identifying Excess Body Fat
On average, the prevalence of overfat adults and children in developed countries is extremely high, and substantially greater than that of overweight and obese individuals.
In the US, New Zealand, Greece, and Iceland, prevalence of the overfat condition is at an alarmingly high rate of over 90% in adult males and up to 50% in children.
Despite a leveling off appearance of the overweight and/or obese condition in some developed countries, the overfat pandemic continues to grow.
In tandem with an increased average waist circumference, a recent rise in the incidence of abdominal adiposity, the unhealthiest form of excess body fat, has been observed in both adults and children.
It was recently estimated that between 62 and 76% of the world’s population have reached body fat levels that can impair health (1). This condition, which can now be labeled a pandemic, was described by the catch-all term overfat (Table 1).
It is well-recognized that the overweight and obese conditions represent a continuing threat to world health, replacing more traditional problems of undernutrition and infectious diseases.
Indeed, being overfat shares direct links to insulin resistance and chronic inflammation, and to hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis and gout, pulmonary diseases, sleep apnea, and others (2).
Global rates of these conditions in adults and children (including adolescents) have risen significantly over the past ~40 years, paralleling significant increases in the numbers classified as being overweight and obese, and considerably affecting people of all ages and incomes in both developed and developing countries (3).
Table 1. Commonly used abbreviations and definitions.
While the prevalence of being overweight and obese is well known (4), many normal-weight and non-obese individuals exhibit excess levels of body fat that can adversely affect their health (5–7).
Indeed, reliance of body mass index (BMI) for determination of being overweight and obese may misclassify up to 50% or more of patients with excess body fat who may have increased health risks (8, 9).
The notion of a metabolically obese normal weight (MONW) individual is the finding that obesity-associated disorders such as high circulating insulin levels in people with cardiovascular disease or Type 2 diabetes can occur in those with normal BMI (10–14). Many at-risk individuals have been identified in a BMI range of 23–25 or lower (11).
Overfat individuals who are not overweight and obese include MONW individuals (10, 15, 16), those with sarcopenic obesity (17), and many who have increased abdominal fat stores. Abdominal and visceral fat accumulation, regardless of weight status, has been found to increase risk of cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolic) disease to the greatest degree (10, 18–20).
In addition, the similar concept of normal weight obesity (NWO) expands on the notion of MONW by describing the association between normal weight and high body fat percentage (BFP) with cardiometabolic abnormalities (21). Oliveros et al. (22) refer to MONW individuals as a ly subset of NWO people. Thus, we include both categories in our estimations of overfat populations herein.
Body mass index is calculated as body weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared, with the World Health Organization (WHO) defining overweight as having a BMI ≥ 25–29.9 and obesity as having a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (2, 4).
While it is well-known that central to the pathophysiology of obesity is an excess amount of adiposity, clinicians and researchers usually rely on BMI (which does not directly estimate body fat) to define the presence of adiposity or obesity—a practice strengthened by the discovery of an association between BMI and increased mortality (23).
However, large multiethnic samples from the US general population have demonstrated that BMI has limited diagnostic performance in correctly identifying individuals with excess body fat, particularly in those with BMI < 30 kg/m2, with BMI missing more than half of people with BFP-defined obesity (8, 9).
For example, Hung has shown that up to 70% of young women with high BFP would be missed by BMI category alone (24). The main limitation of BMI is that it cannot differentiate fat mass from lean mass, or central from peripheral fat (5, 22).
Furthermore, the relationship between BMI and BFP varies considerably among different ethnic groups, further lowering the utility of BMI as a predictive measure of adiposity and health risk for many groups of people (25, 26).
Regardless of body weight or BMI, excess BFP in adults is associated with a wide range of cardiometabolic dysregulation, as indicated by various risk factors associated with downstream disease and mortality (5–7).
In particular, excess BFP is associated with elevated fasting triglycerides and glucose, low HDL and high LDL cholesterol, increased blood pressure, a higher odds ratio of developing the metabolic syndrome, along with Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic illness, with increased mortality as a consequence. The earliest dysregulation is often observed now in children (10, 27).
Perhaps the earliest onset of cardiometabolic dysregulation begins as a vicious cycle of excess body fat, insulin resistance, and chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation (28, 29).
Excess adiposity is a source of inflammatory molecules that can disrupt glucose homeostasis and contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (30, 31). In turn, insulin resistance further exacerbates adiposity by influencing glucose disposal and fat storage.
As such, the overfat condition potentially contributes to two adverse metabolic conditions (chronic inflammation and insulin resistance), which then contribute to further adiposity.
This is in effect a vicious cycle wherein the appearance of adiposity and its initial consequences feed back into themselves, accelerating and entrenching the dysregulation (See Figure 1).
Figure 1. The impact of diet-induced neuroendocrine cardiometabolic stress on the interrelationship between excess body fat, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance.
An updated definition of obesity adiposity, not on body weight, is urgently needed (22). As we have argued, the term overfat fills this void. As such, the term may be better suited to help public health efforts in reducing cardiometabolic risk factors and preventing disease, improving quality of life, and mitigating the economic burden of this global problem.
Calculation of Fat Mass
The methods used to quantify BFP include bioelectrical impedance, hydrostatic plethysmography, isotope dilution techniques, dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), skinfold method, body impedance measures, and others, with DXA one of the most accurate and precise methods available to measure total body fat and lean soft tissue mass directly (32). Epidemiologic studies have also demonstrated that central fat distribution assessed through waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) measures can be very useful in assessing adiposity-related risk (22); although, BMI, these measurements cannot estimate BFP.
While there is still no consensus on normal BFP cutoffs, Gallagher et al. (33) suggest they should vary with age such as 20–39 years, >19 and >32%; 40–59 years, >21 and 33%; and 60–79 years, >24 and 35% for men and women, respectively (33). Body fat distribution, genetics, and fitness also can contribute to the development of health risk factors.
Recent large-scale epidemiological analyses, such as the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study reported in Ng et al.
(4), have attempted to provide a picture of obesity-related health risk on a worldwide scale, defining the prevalence of overweight and obese conditions using common BMI conventions for adults (overweight as ≥25 to 40 years than the general population, and that these individuals were at increased risk for all-cause mortality and/or cardiovascular events over the long-term (≥10 years). Other studies have noted that these seemingly healthy obese subjects may have subclinical disease, concluding that longer follow-ups or more careful evaluation may be required before referring to them as healthy (79, 80). As such, we consider so-called MHO individuals to also be overfat (22).
Economics of Overfat
The economic fallout from the overfat pandemic has raised a serious global challenge. In 2011, the WHO estimated that the economic burden of preventable, non-communicable disease (in particular cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes) is expected to create a cumulative output loss of US$47 trillion over the next two decades (81).
In 2010, this represented 75% of global GDP (US$ 63 trillion)—enough capital to lift the 2.5 billion people currently below the poverty line, poverty for more than half a century.
While it is difficult to determine the absolute burden of the overfat pandemic, it is clearly a strong causal factor in the development of a significant portion of chronic disease and reduced quality of life.
Who is Overfat
It is important to recognize high-risk populations for better adiposity-based risk stratification, along with a need for an updated definition of obesity adiposity, not on body weight (22).
We previously estimated the global prevalence of the overfat population using several subpopulations that included those who are overweight, obese, MONW individuals, those with sarcopenic obesity and others (1).
Additionally, the overfat pandemic has not spared physically active people, including professional athletes in various sports (82, 83) and active US military personnel (84, 85).
Unique to developed countries are the recently increased numbers of older persons more ly to develop sarcopenic obesity, and the increase in abdominal obesity that outpaces increases in BMI.
We introduce two new additional terms to more accurately describe excess fat accumulation in those who are sarcopenic and those with increased abdominal adiposity.
Specifically, because the term “obesity” has historically been explicitly BMI, its use to describe these two body compositions is arguably incorrect and may even be confusing to the public and media. We therefore aim to better define and draw attention to two growing components of the overfat pandemic, sarcopenic overfat, and abdominal overfat.
Sarcopenia is defined as the progressive loss of type II fast-twitch muscle fibers and strength with aging and is an important public health problem with a prevalence as high as 50% in those >80 years (86).
Muscle atrophy can coexist with an accumulation of fat within existing muscle, and the combination of higher body fat and sarcopenia has been termed sarcopenic obesity (87, 88), which we refer to henceforth in this paper as sarcopenic overfat.
This condition is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, elevated C-reactive protein, and excessive oxidative stress (17). Sarcopenia increases the risk of disability and poor quality of life, and death, and may have an important association with chronic illness and aging.
In the elderly, who naturally exhibit the highest rates of mortality in survival studies, the diagnostic performance of BMI is at its worst, ly to be highly under-estimating the extent of overfat people with sarcopenic overfat (8).
The increasing rates of overfat people are due in great part to increased incidence of abdominal obesity in adults and children (61, 89).
Other terminologies used for this condition include visceral obesity, visceral adiposity, android obesity, central obesity, the hypertriglyceridemic waist, and others.
Since the problem can occur in people who are not obese, we suggest the term abdominal overfat as a simplified one that broadly defines the specific problem of excess abdominal fat.
Two separate components of abdominal fat include visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue, the former being associated with more adverse risk factor profiles than the latter (45, 90).
Although total adiposity is strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk, it is becoming increasingly clear that visceral adipose tissue is a stronger correlate of risk than BMI, WC, or abdominal subcutaneous fat (91), and more strongly associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis than peripheral obesity (92).
The recognition that abdominal overfat has separate and more severe health effects is not new (93–106).
Prospective epidemiological studies have demonstrated the power of abdominal overfat to predict premature death in conjunction with various cardiometabolic-related chronic diseases in both men and women (107).
Numerous studies more recently reported secular increases in WC in men and women in the US, England, Australia, Finland, and the Netherlands (108–115).
In our estimation of overfat children, we considered studies that measured BFP and WHtR. BFP measures may represent a reasonable method of estimating the population of normal-weight non-obese children, as excess body fat can exist in those with a BMI < 25 (116). the WHtR (